Themes in U.S. History
Aaron Burr- Jefferson's first-term vice president; after being dropped from Jefferson's cabinet, he joined a group of extremist Federalists who plotted the secession of New England and New York; Alexander Hamilton uncovered the plot. Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel and Hamilton accepted. Hamilton refused to shoot and he was shot and killed by Burr.
Meriwether Lewis, and William Clark to explore the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase
Jefferson also did away with the excise tax
Not wanting to fight Napoleon and France in western America, Jefferson sent James Monroe to join Robert Livingston in Paris in 1803 to buy as much land as he could for $10 million.
Robert Livingston- along with James Monroe, negotiated in Paris for the Louisiana land area; signed a treaty on April 30, 1803 ceding Louisiana to the United States for $15 million. The Americans had signed 3 treaties and gotten much land to the west of the Mississippi. 820,000 square miles at 3 cents/acre.
In 1807, Jefferson passed the Embargo Act. It banned the exportation of any goods to any countries. With the act, Jefferson planned to force France and England, who both depended on American trade, to respect America and its citizens, who had been killed and captured by both countries. The embargo significantly hurt the profits of U.S. merchants and was consequently hated by Americans.
The act was repealed in 1809 and a substitute act was enacted: The Non-Intercourse Act. It opened up trade to every country except France and Britain.
Napoleon Bonaparte convinced the king of Spain to give Louisiana land area to France in 1800.
Napoleon decided to sell all of Louisiana and abandon his dream of a New World Empire for 2 reasons:
He failed in his efforts to re-conquer the island of Santo Domingo, for which Louisiana was to serve as a source of foodstuffs.
Because Britain controlled the seas, Napoleon didn't want Britain to take over Louisiana. So he wanted the money from the Americans. He also hoped the new land for America would help to thwart the ambitions of the British king in the New World.
England issued a series of Orders in Council in 1806. They closed the European ports under French control to foreign shipping. The French ordered the seizure of all merchant ships that entered British ports
Politics and Citizenship
Thomas Jefferson beat John Adams to win the election of 1800 by a majority of 73 to 65 electoral votes
The Naturalization Law of 1802 reduced the requirement of 14 years of residence to the previous 5 years
Judiciary Act of 1801- passed by the expiring Federalist Congress; created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices.
The new Republican-Democratic Congress quickly repealed the act and kicked out the 16 newly seated judges. One Federalist judge, Chief Justice John Marshall, was not removed
Marbury vs. Madison (1803) - James Madison, the new secretary of state, had cut judge Marbury's salary; Marbury sued James Madison for his pay; Marbury ended up getting his pay but the decision showed that the Supreme Court had the final authority in determining the meaning of the Constitution
Jefferson was reelected in 1804, capturing 162 electoral votes, while his Federalist opponent (Charles Pinckney) only received 14 votes
James Madison became president on March 4, 1809.
Congress issued Macon's Bill No. 2. It reopened American trade with the entire world. Napoleon convinced James Madison to give Britain 3 months to lift its Orders in Council. Madison did, but Britain chose not to lift its Orders in Council, and Madison had to reenact the United States's trade embargo, but this time just against Britain
Jefferson quickly pardoned the prisoners of the Sedition Acts
Slavery and Its Legacies in North America
War and Diplomacy
Jefferson was forced to bend his thoughts of not using military force when the leader of Tripoli informally declared war on the United States. Jefferson sent the new navy to Tripoli and after 4 years of fighting, a deal was reached. The U.S. paid Tripoli $60,000 for the release of captured Americans.
Twelfth Congress- met in 1811; the "war hawks" wanted to go to war with the British and wanted to eliminate the Indian threats to pioneers
Tecumseh- Shawnee, along with his brother, unified many Indian tribes in a last ditch battle with the settlers; allied with the British.
Tenskwatawa- "the Prophet"; Shawnee, along with his brother, unified many Indian tribes in a last ditch battle with the settlers; allied with the British.
William Henry Harrison- governor of the Indiana territory; defeated the Shawnee at the Battle of Tippecanoe.
On June 1, 1812, Madison asked Congress to declare war on the British and it agreed