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AP US History - The Ulimate Study Guide (it's by some other scholar @ another site)

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AP US History - The Ulimate Study Guide (it's by some other scholar @ another site)

Ultimate Study Guides Download!!!


Since cnotes can't afford to upload big documents, i have upload my treasures to box.net, go to these links to download

AP US HISTORY - Ultimate Study Guide.doc

Cram Packet.doc

The American Pageant Term Sheet.pdf (Without definitions, but definitely a great quick review tool for main concept of the chapter from American Pageant 12e, if you know the vocab then you know the chapter)

The Giant American History AP Review.doc

Timeline.doc (A very brief yet encompassing time line for review!)

Colonial History (1600-1763)
1. Separatist vs. non-Separatist Puritans – Radical Calvinists against the Church of England; Separatists (Pilgrims) argued for a break from the Church of England, led the Mayflower, and established the settlement at Plymouth
2. Northwest Passage – believed to provide shortcut from Atlantic to Pacific, searched for by Giovanni de Verrazano for Francis I in the race to Asian wealth
3. Conversion Experience – required of members of the Puritan Church; took the place of baptism required by the Catholic Church
4. Social Reciprocity – society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminantly
5. Church of England – Protestant church led by the king of England, independent of Catholic Church; tended toward Catholicism during reign of Catholic royalty
6. Atlantic slave trade – often debtors sold to slave traders by African kings seeking riches; Columbian Exchange
7. Jamestown – first permanent English settlement in the Americas (1607), along James River
8. John Smith – introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks
9. Pocahontas – key to English-Native American relationship, died in England in 1617
10. Mayflower Compact – foundation for self-government laid out by the first Massachusetts settlers before arriving on land
11. John Winthrop – Calvinist, devised concept of “city on a hill” (“A Model of Christian Charity”); founded highly successful towns in Massachusetts Bay
12. “City on a Hill” – exemplary Christian community, rich to show charity, held to Calvinistic beliefs
13. Indentured servants – settlers to pay the expenses of a servant’s voyage and be granted land for each person they brought over; headright system
14. Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649) – mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)
15. James I, Charles I – reluctant to give colonists their own government, preferred to appoint royal governors
16. William Penn and the Quakers – settled in Pennsylvania, believed the “Inner Light” could speak through any person and ran religious services without ministers
17. Roger Williams – challenged New Englanders to completely separate Church from State, as the State would corrupt the church
18. Anne Hutchinson – challenged New England Calvinist ministers’ authority, as they taught the good works for salvation of Catholicism
19. The Half-Way Covenant – New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints
20. Bacon’s Rebellion – rebels felt the governor of Virginia failed to protect the frontier from the Native Americans

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Independence (1763-1789)
21. Navigation Acts – only English and American ships allowed to colonial ports; dissent began in 1763
22. Mercantilism – ensured trade with mother country, nationalism; too restrictive on colonial economy, not voted on by colonists
23. Charles II, James II – tried to rule as absolute monarchs without using Parliament, little to no sympathy for colonial legislatures
24. William and Mary – ended the Dominion of New England, gave power back to colonies
25. Dominion of New England – combined Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Plymouth (and later Jersey and New York) into one “supercolony” governed by Sir Edmond Andros, a “supergovernor”
26. The Glorious Revolution – William and Mary kicked James II out of England (exiled into France), allowed more power to the legislatures
27. James Oglethorpe – established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors
28. The Enlightenment – emphasis on human reason, logic, and science (acquired, not nascent, knowledge); increased followers of Christianity
29. Benjamin Franklin – connected the colonies to Britain, opposed to unnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan
30. The Great Awakening – began by Edwards to return to Puritanism, increased overall religious involvement, gave women more active roles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughout the country; mainly affected towns and cities
• Deists – believed that God created the universe to act through natural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine
• George Whitefield – powerful speaker, toured the country and inspired many into Christianity
• Jonathan Edwards – Puritan minister, led revivals, stressed immediate repentance
• New Lights vs. Old Lights – New Lights brought new ideas, rejected by Old Lights; both sought out institutions independent of each other
31. Albany Plan of Union – colonies proposed colonial confederation under lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, “Grand Council”); never took effect
32. French and Indian War – French threat at the borders was no longer present, therefore the colonies didn’t need English protection; more independent stand against Britain
33. Proclamation of 1763 – prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth
34. Salutary Neglect – Parliament took minor actions in the colonies, allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements
35. Writs of Assistance – search warrants on shipping to reduce smuggling; challenged by James Otis
36. Townshend Act (1767) – similar to Navigatio; raised money to pay colonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries
37. Sugar Act – increased tariff on sugar (and other imports), attempted to harder enforce existing tariffs
38. Stamp Act– taxes on all legal documents to support British troops, not approved by colonists through their representatives
• Stamp Act Congress – held in New York, agreed to not import British goods until Stamp Act was repealed
• Virginia Resolves – “no taxation without representation,” introduced by Patrick Henry
39. Currency Act – prohibited colonies from issuing paper money, destabilized colonial economy
40. Virtual Representation – all English subjects are represented in Parliament, including those not allowed to vote
41. The Loyal Nine – group of Bostonians in opposition to the Stamp Act, sought to drive stamp distributors from the city
42. Sons of Liberty – organized and controlled resistance against Parliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom), advocated nonimportation
43. Declaratory Act – allowed Parliament to completely legislate over the colonies, limited colonists’ say
44. Boston Massacre – British soldiers shot into crowd of snowball fight; two of nine soldiers (defended by John Adams) found guilty of manslaughter
45. Committees of Correspondence – committees appointed from different colonies to communicate on matters; asserted rights to self-government, cooperation between colonies
46. Tea Act (1773) – intended to save British East India Company from bankruptcy, could sell directly to consumers rather than through wholesalers (lowered prices to compete with smuggled tea)
47. Boston Tea Party – peaceful destruction of British tea in Boston Harbor by colonists disguised as Indians
48. Quebec Acts – former French subjects in Canada allowed to keep Catholicism, while American colonists expected to participate in the Church of England
49. Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) – in reaction to the Boston Tea Party; closing of Boston Harbor, revocation of Massachusetts charter (power to governor), murder in the name of royal authority would be tried in England or another colony
50. Suffolk Resolves – organize militia, end trade with Britain, refuse to pay taxes to Britain
51. Olive Branch Petition – politely demanded from the king a cease-fire in Boston, repeal of Coercive Acts, guarantee of American rights
52. Thomas Paine, Common Sense – stressed to the American people British maltreatment and emphasize a need for revolution; appealed to American emotions
53. George Washington – American commander-in-chief; first president, set precedents for future presidents, put down Whiskey Rebellion (enforced Whiskey Tax), managed first presidential cabinet, carefully used power of executive to avoid monarchial style rule
54. Whigs (Patriots) – most numerous in New England, fought for independence
55. Tories (Loyalists) – fought for return to colonial rule, usually conservative (educated and wealthy)
56. British strengths and weaknesses – British citizenship outnumbered colonies’, large navy and professional army; exhausted resources (Hessians hired), national debt
• Colonial strengths and weaknesses – fair amount of troops, short guerilla tactics, strong leaders (Washington); nonprofessional army that could not handle long battles
57. Battle of Saratoga – American general Horatio Gates was victorious over British general Burgoyne
58. Valley Forge – scarce supplies (food and clothing), army motivated by von Steuben
59. Battle of Yorktown – last major battle; surrender of Cornwallis, led King George III to officially make peace with the colonies
60. Treaty of Paris (1783) – full American independence, territory west of Appalachian ceded to America, loyalists to be compensated for seized property, fishing rights off of Newfoundland
61. American society during the Revolution – British-occupied cities, new governments, fighting by any with experience, loaned money, African-Americans and Native Americans involved
62. Articles of Confederation – states joined for foreign affairs, Congress reigned supreme (lacked executive and judicial), one vote per state, 2/3 vote for bills, unanimous for amendments; too much power to states, unable to regulate commerce or taxes
63. Virginia Statute on Religious Freedom (1786) – foundation for First Amendment, offered free choice of religion, not influenced by state
64. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – defined process for territories to become states (population reached 60,000), forbade slavery in the new territories
65. Alexander Hamilton – pushed for Assumption (federal government to assume state debts), pushed creation of the National Bank (most controversial), loose interpretation of Constitution, leader of Federalist Party
66. James Madison – strong central government, separation of powers, “extended republic”
67. Shays’s Rebellion – mistreated farmers, fear of mobocracy, forced people to think about central government
68. Connecticut Compromise – advocated by Roger Sherman, proposed two independently-voting senators per state and representation in the House based on population
• Virginia Plan – bicameral congressional representation based on population
• New Jersey Plan – equal representation in unicameral congress
• Commerce Compromise – congress could tax imports but not exports
69. Federalism – strong central government provided by power divided between state and national governments, checks and balances, amendable constitution
70. Changes in the Constitution from the Articles – stronger union of states, equal and population-based representation, simple majority vote (with presidential veto), regulation of foreign and interstate commerce, execution by president, power to enact taxes, federal courts, easier amendment process
• Articles’ achievement – system for orderly settlement of West
• Elastic Clause (“necessary and proper”) – gives Congress the power to pass laws it deems necessary to enforce the Constitution
71. Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists – Anti-Federalists wanted states’ rights, bill of rights, unanimous consent, reference to religion, more power to less-rich and common people; Federalists wanted strong central government, more power to experienced, separation of church and state, stated that national government would protect individual rights
72. The Federalist Papers – written anonymously by Hamilton, Jay, and Madison; commentary on Constitution, republicanism extended over large territory

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Post-Independence and Critical Period (1789-1800)
73. Judiciary Act of 1789 – established federal district courts that followed local procedures, Supreme Court had final jurisdiction; compromise between nationalists and advocates for states’ rights
74. Bill of Rights – protected rights of individual from the power of the central government
75. Bank of the United States – Hamilton’s plan to solve Revolutionary debt, Assumption highly controversial, pushed his plan through Congress, based on loose interpretation of Constitution
76. Report on Public Credit – proposed by Hamilton to repair war debts; selling of securities and federal lands, assumption of state debts, set up the first National Bank
77. Report on Manufactures (tariffs) – Hamilton praised efficient factories with few managers over many workers, promote emigration, employment opportunities, applications of technology
78. Strict vs. Loose interpretation of the Constitution – loose interpretation allowed for implied powers of Congress (such as the National Bank), strict interpretation implied few powers to Congress
79. Whiskey Rebellion – Western Pennsylvanian farmers’ violent protest against whiskey excise tax, Washington sent large army to put down revolt, protests to be limited to non-violent
80. Citizen Genet – Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south, which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St. Augustine
81. Impressment – British Navy would take American sailors and force them to work for Britain
82. Jay’s Treaty – provided for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes
83. Nullification – states could refuse to enforce the federal laws they deemed unconstitutional
84. Federalists and Republicans – the two political parties that formed following Washington’s presidency; Federalists for stronger central government, Republicans for stronger state governments
85. Washington’s Farewell Address – warned against permanent foreign alliances and political parties, called for unity of the country, established precedent of two-term presidency
• Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 – response to French attempts for alliance with US
86. XYZ Affair – French foreign minister (Talleyrand) demanded bribe in order to meet with American peace commission, made Adams unpopular among the people
87. Alien and Sedition Acts – meant to keep government unquestioned by critics, particularly of the Federalists
88. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions – argued that states had the right to determine whether or not the laws passed by Congress were constitutional
89. 12th Amendment – required separate and distinct ballots for presidential and vice presidential candidates Citizen Genet – Edmond Genet contributed to polarization of the new nation by creating his American Foreign Legion in the south, which was directed to attack Spanish garrisons in New Orleans and St. Augustine
90. Second Great Awakening – emphasis on personal salvation, emotional response, and individual faith; women and blacks; nationalism (Manifest Destiny)

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Jefferson’s Administration and Growth of Nationalism (1800-1820)
91. Election of 1800 – Adams, Jefferson, and Burr: Adams lost, Jefferson and Burr tied, Hamilton convinced other Federalists to vote for Jefferson to break the tie
92. Barbary Pirates – North African Muslim rulers solved budget problems through piracy and tributes in Mediterranean, obtained fees from most European powers
93. Midnight judges – judges appointed to Supreme Court by Adams in the last days of his presidency to force them upon Jefferson, Marshall among those appointed
94. Marbury v. Madison – John Marshall declared that the Supreme Court could declare federal laws unconstitutional
95. Lewis and Clark expedition – Meriwether Lewis and William Clark sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Territory on “Voyage of Discovery”
96. Non-Intercourse Act – sought to encourage domestic American manufacturing
97. Macon’s Bill No. 2 – president has power to cease trade with any foreign country that violated American neutrality
98. Embargo Act (1807) – prohibited exports (and imports) based in American ports, most controversial Jefferson legislation
99. War hawks – Clay and Calhoun, eager for war with Britain (War of 1812)
100. Henry Clay and the American System – Henry Clay aimed to make the US economically independent from Europe (e.g., support internal improvements, tariff protection, and new national bank)
101. John C. Calhoun – opposed Polk’s high-handedness, avid Southern slave-owner (right to own property, slaves as property)
102. William Henry Harrison – military hero from War of 1812; elected president 1840, died of pneumonia a month later, gave presidency to Tyler
103. Battle of Tippecanoe – decisive victory in the War of 1812 by Harrison over Tecumseh, used in Harrison’s campaign for presidency
104. Hartford Convention – December 1814, opposed War of 1812, called for one-term presidency, northern states threatened to secede if their views were left unconsidered next to those of southern and western states, supported nullification, end of Federalist Party
• Essex case – Federalist cause leading up to Hartford Convention
105. Era of Good Feelings – Monroe presidency, national unity behind Monroe, post-war boom (foreign demand for cotton, grain, and tobacco), Depression of 1819 (cheap British imports, tightened credit, affected West the most)
106. James Monroe – provided country with a break from partisan politics, Missouri Compromise, issued Monroe Doctrine
107. Missouri Compromise (1820) – Maine as free state, Missouri as slave state, slavery prohibited north of 36°30’
Tallmadge Amendment – no further introduction of slaves into Missouri, all children born to slaves to become free at 25
108. Rush-Bagot Treaty (1817) – agreement between US and Britain to remove armed fleets from the Great Lakes
109. Adams-Onis Treaty – remainder of Florida sold by Spain to US, boundary of Mexico defined
110. Monroe Doctrine – Europeans should not interfere with affairs in Western Hemisphere, Americans to stay out of foreign affairs; supported Washington’s goal for US neutrality in Americas

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Age of Jackson (1820-1850)
111. Panic of 1819 – Bank tightened loan policies, depression rose throughout the country, hurt western farmers greatly
112. Election of 1824 – “corrupt bargain” and backroom deal for JQ Adams to win over Jackson
113. Tariff of Abominations – under JQ Adams, protectionist tariff, South considered it the source of economic problems, made Jackson appear to advocate free trade
114. Jackson’s Presidency – focused on the “Common Man;” removal of Indians, removal of federal deposits in BUS, annexation of territory, liberal use of veto
115. Transportation Revolution – river traffic, roadbuilding, canals (esp. Erie), rise of NYC
• Erie Canal – goods able to be transferred from New York to New Orleans by inland waterways
• National Road – part of transportation revolution, from Cumberland MD to Wheeling WVa, toll road network; stimulated Western expansion
116. Indian Removal Act – Jackson was allowed to relocate Indian tribes in the Louisiana Territory
• Five Civilized Tribes – Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; “civilized” due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion
• “Trail of Tears” – Cherokee tribe forced to move from southern Appalachians to reservations in current-day Oklahoma, high death toll
• Cherokee Nation v. Georgia – first attempt of Cherokees to gain complete sovereign rule over their nation
• Worcester v. Georgia – Georgia cannot enforce American laws on Indian tribes
117. Spoils System – “rotation in office;” Jackson felt that one should spend a single term in office and return to private citizenship, those who held power too long would become corrupt and political appointments made by new officials was essential for democracy
• Kitchen Cabinet – Jackson used personal friends as unofficial advisors over his official cabinet
118. Lowell mill/system – young women employed by Lowell’s textile company, housed in dormitories
119. Cotton Gin – allowed for faster processing of cotton, invented by Eli Whitney, less need for slaves
120. Nullification Controversy – southern states (especially South Carolina) believed that they had the right to judge federal laws unconstitutional and therefore not enforce them
• South Carolina Exposition and Protest – written by Calhoun, regarding tariff nullification
121. Bank of the United States – destroyed by Jackson on the grounds that it was unconstitutional and too much power for a federal institution
• Pet banks – small state banks set up by Jackson to keep federal funds out of the National Bank, used until funds were consolidated into a single treasury
• Independent Treasury Bill – government would hold its revenues rather than deposit them in banks, thus keeping the funds away from private corporations; “America’s Second Declaration of Independence”
• Specie – paper money; specie circular decreed that the government would not accept specie for government land
122. Maysville Road Veto – vetoed by Jackson on the count that government funds for the Maysville Road would only benefit one state
123. Liberty Party – supported abolition, broke off of Anti-Slavery Society
124. Whig Party – believed in expanding federal power on economy, encouraged industrial development; could only gain power on the local level, led by Henry Clay (anti-Jackson)
125. John C. Calhoun – opposed Polk’s high-handedness, avid Southern slave owner
126. Marshall Court (all cases) – Marbury v. Madison (judicial review), McChulloch v. Maryland (loose Constitutional interpretation, constitutionality of National Bank, states cannot control government agencies), Gibbons v. Ogden (interstate commerce controlled by Congress), Fletcher v. Peck (valid contract cannot be broken, state law voided), Dartmouth College v. Woodward (charter cannot be altered without both parties’ consent)
127. Second Great Awakening – religious movements, traveling “meetings,” rise of Baptist and Methodist ministries; Charles G. Finney
• Burned-Over District – heavily evangelized to the point there were no more people left to convert to other religions, upstate New York, home to the beginning of Smith’s Mormonism movement
128. Horace Mann – worked to reform the American education system, abolitionist, prison/asylum reform with Dorothea Dix
129. William Lloyd Garrison – editor of The Liberator (strongly abolitionist newspaper calling for immediate abolition of slavery), fought for feminist movement (“Am I not a woman and a sister” picture of slave woman)
130. Frederick Douglass – runaway slave, well-known speaker on the condition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips, founder of The North Star
131. Seneca Falls Convention of 1848 – for women’s rights, organized by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, modeled requests after the Declaration of Independence
• Elizabeth Cady Stanton – organized Seneca Falls Convention, founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization
• Angelina and Sarah Grimké – fought for women’s rights and abolition, “Men and women are CREATED EQUAL!”
132. Dorothea Dix – worked towards asylums for the mentally insane, worked alongside Mann
133. John Humphrey Noyes/Oneida Community – John Noyes, New York; utopian society for communalism, perfectionism, and complex marriage
• New Harmony – first Utopian society, by Robert Owen
134. Hudson River School – American landscape painting rather than Classical subjects
135. Transcendentalism – founded by Emerson, strong emphasis on spiritual unity (God, humanity, and nature), literature with strong references to nature
• Ralph Waldo Emerson – in Brook Farm Community, literary nationalist, transcendentalist (nascent ideas of God and freedom), wrote “The American Scholar”
• Henry David Thoreau (Walden and On Civil Disobedience) – in Brook Farm Community, lived in seclusion for two years writing Walden, proved that man could provide for himself without materialistic wants

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Slavery and Sectionalism (1845-1860)
136. Nat Turner’s Rebellion – Nat Turner led a slave rebellion in Virginia, attacked many whites, prompted non-slaveholding Virginians to consider emancipation
137. Yeoman Farmers – family farmers who hired out slaves for the harvest season, self-sufficient, participated in local markets alongside slave owners
138. Underground Railroad – network of safe houses of white abolitionists used to bring slaves to freedom
Harriet Tubman – worked alongside Josiah Henson to make repeated trips to get slaves out of the South into freedom
139. “Wage slaves” – northern factory workers who were discarded when too old to work (unlike the slaves who were still kept fed and clothed in their old age)
140. Nativism – anti-immigrant, especially against Irish Catholics
141. The Alamo – Mexicans held siege on the Alamo (in San Antonio), Texans lost great number of people, “Remember the Alamo”
• Stephen Austin – American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico
142. James K. Polk – “dark horse” Democratic candidate; acquired majority of the western US (Mexican Cession, Texas Annexation, Oregon Country), lowered tariffs, created Independent Treasury
143. Oregon and “Fifty-four Forty or Fight!” – Oregon Territory owned jointly with Britain, Polk severed its tie to Britain, forced to settle for compromise south of 49° rather than 54°40’
144. Manifest Destiny – stated the United States was destined to span the breadth of the entire continent with as much land as possible, advocated by Polk
145. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – acquired Mexican Cession (future California, Arizona, and New Mexico); Mexico acknowledged American annexation of Texas
Wilmot Proviso – slavery to be barred in all territory ceded from Mexico; never fully passed Congress
146. California Gold Rush – gold discovery in Sutter’s Mill in 1848 resulted in huge mass of adventurers in 1849, led to application for statehood, opened question of slavery in the West

The Civil War (1850-1880)
147. William Seward – Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson; purchase of Alaska “Seward’s Folly”
148. Compromise of 1850 – (1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
• Fugitive Slave Act – runaway slaves could be caught in the North and be brought back to their masters (they were treated as property – running away was as good as stealing)
149. Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin – depicted the evils of slavery (splitting of families and physical abuse); increased participation in abolitionist movement, condemned by South
150. Know-Nothing (American) Party – opposed to all immigration, strongly anti-Catholic
151. Popular Sovereignty – the principle that a state should decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery
152. Kansas-Nebraska Act – territory split into Kansas and Nebraska, popular sovereignty (Kansas slave, Nebraska free); proposed by Stephen A. Douglas
• “Bleeding Kansas” – border ruffians in election on issue of slavery incited controversy, proslavery group attacked Lawrence, Kansas, Pottawatomie Massacre
• Lecompton Constitution – proslavery constitution in Kansas, supported by Buchanan, freesoilers against it (victorious), denied statehood until after secession
• John Brown – led Pottawatomie Massacre, extreme abolitionist who believed he was doing God’s work
• Pottawatomie Creek (May 1856) – John Brown and his sons slaughtered five men as a response to the election fraud in Lawrence and the caning of Sumner in Congress
• Republican Party – formed in response to Kansas-Nebraska Act, banned in the South, John C Fremont first presidential candidate
153. Harpers Ferry (1859) – Brown aimed to create an armed slave rebellion and establish black free state; Brown executed and became martyr in the North
154. Dred Scott v. Sandford – slaves could not sue in federal courts (blacks no longer considered citizens), slaves could not be taken from masters except by the law, Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, Congress not able to prohibit slavery in a state
155. Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) – over Senate seat for Illinois (Douglas victor), Lincoln stated the country could not remain split over the issue of slavery
• Freeport Doctrine – Douglas was able to reconcile the Dred Scott Decision with popular sovereignty; voters would be able to exclude slavery by not allowing laws that treated slaves as property
156. Fort Sumter – first shots are fired at Charleston, North Carolina
157. 20-Negro Law – exempted those who owned or oversaw twenty or more slaves from service in the Confederate Army; “rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight”
158. Anaconda plan – the Union planned a blockade that would not allow supplies of any sort into the Confederacy; control the Mississippi and Atlantic/Gulf of Mexico
159. Ulysses S. Grant – won battles in the West and raised northern morale (esp. Shiloh, Fort Henry, and Fort Donelson), made Union commanding general
160. William T. Sherman – pushed through northern Georgia, captured Atlanta, “march to the sea” (total war and destruction), proceeded to South Carolina
161. Robert E. Lee – opposed to slavery and secession, but stayed loyal to Virginia, despite offer for command of Union Army
162. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson – Lee’s chief lieutenant and premier cavalry officer
163. Battle of Antietam – Lee’s attack on Maryland in hopes that he could take it from the Union, bloodiest day of the war, stalemate, McClellan replaced by Burnside, stalemate, South would never be so close to victory again
• Emancipation Proclamation – issued by Lincoln following Antietam (close enough to a victory to empower the proclamation), declared slaves in the Confederacy free (did not include border states), symbolic gesture to support Union’s moral cause in the war
164. Battle of Gettysburg – Lee invaded Pennsylvania, bloodiest battle of the war, Confederate Pickett’s Charge (disastrous), Lee forced to retreat (not pursued by Meade), South doomed to never invade North again, Gettysburg Address given by Lincoln (nation over union)
165. New York City draft riots (1863) – drafting extremely hated by Northerners, sparked by Irish-Americans against the black population, 500 lives lost, many buildings burned
166. Military Reconstruction Act (1867) – South divided into 5 military districts; states to guarantee full suffrage for blacks; ratify 14th amendment
167. Compromise of 1877 – South to gain removal of last troops from Reconstruction; North wins Hayes as president

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Business and Labor: The Gilded Age (1865-1900)
& Progressivism and Populism (1900-1920)
168. Andrew Carnegie – achieved an abnormal rise in class system (steel industry), pioneered vertical integration (controlled Mesabie Range to ship ore to Pittsburgh), opposed monopolies, used partnership of steel tycoons (Henry Clay Frick as a manager/partner), Bessemer steel process
169. Standard Oil Trust – small oil companies sold stock and authority to Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company (consolidation), cornered world petroleum market
170. John D. Rockefeller – Standard Oil Company, ruthless business tactics (survival of the fittest)
171. Vertical and horizontal integration – beginnings of trusts (destruction of competition); vertical- controlling every aspect of production (control quality, eliminate middlemen - Rockefeller); horizontal- consolidating with competitors to monopolize a market (highly detrimental)
172. Sherman Anti-Trust Act – forbade restraint of trade and did not distinguish good from bad trusts, ineffective due to lack of enforcement mechanism (waited for Clayton Anti-Trust Act)
173. United States vs. EC Knight Company – decision under Sherman Anti-Trust Act shot down by Supreme Court – sugar refining was manufacturing rather than trade/commerce
174. National Labor Union – founded by William Sylvis (1866); supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks
175. Knights of Labor – founded by Uriah Stephens (1869); excluded corrupt and well-off; equal female pay, end to child/convict labor, employer-employee relations, proportional income tax; “bread and butter” unionism (higher wages, shorter hours, better conditions)
• Terence V. Powderly – Knights of Labor leader, opposed strikes, producer-consumer cooperation, temperance, welcomed blacks and women (allowing segregation)
176. American Federation of Labor – craft unions that left the Knights (1886), led by Gompers, women left out of recruitment efforts
• Samuel Gompers – focused on skilled workers (harder to replace than unskilled), coordinated crafts unions, supported 8-hour workday and injury liability
177. “Yellow dog contracts” – fearing the rise of labor unions, corporations forced new employees to sign and promise not to be part of a union
178. Pinkertons – detectives hired by employers as private police force, often used to end strikes
179. Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) – 10-year moratorium on Chinese immigration to reduce competition for jobs (Chinese willing to work for cheap salaries)
180. Haymarket Bombing – bomb thrown at protest rally, police shot protestors, caused great animosity in employers for workers’ unions
181. Eugene V. Debs – led railroad workers in Pullman Strike, arrested; Supreme Court (decision in re Debs) legalized use of injunction (court order) against unions and strikes
182. Social Darwinism – natural selection applied to human competition, advocated by Herbert Spencer, William Graham Sumner
183. Henry George, Progress and Poverty – single tax on speculated land to ameliorate industrialization misery
184. Edward Bellamy, Looking Backwards – state-run economy to provide conflict-free society
185. Karl Marx, Das Kapital – working class exploited for profit, proletariat (workers) to revolt and inherit all society
186. Thomas Edison – electric light, phonograph, mimeograph, Dictaphone, moving pictures
187. Louis Sullivan – led architectural movement to create building designs that reflected buildings’ functions, especially in Chicago
188. Interstate Commerce Act – created Interstate Commerce Commission to require railroads to publish rates (less discrimination, short/long haul), first legislation to regulate corporations, ineffective ICC
189. Social Gospel movement – stressed role of church and religion to improve city life, led by preachers Walter Raushenbusch and Washington Gladen; influenced settlement house movement and Salvation Army
190. Young Men’s and Young Women’s Christian Association (YMCA & YWCA) – provided housing and recreation to city youth, imposing Protestant morals, unable to reach out to all youth
191. Jane Addams – helped lead settlement house movement, co-founded NAACP, condemned war and poverty
192. Hull House – Jane Addams’s pioneer settlement house (center for women’s activism and social reform) in Chicago
193. Salvation Army – established by “General” William Booth, uniformed volunteers provided food, shelter, and employment to families, attracted poor with lively preaching and marching bands in order to instill middle-class virtues
194. Declining death rate – sewer systems and purification of water
195. New immigrants vs. old immigrants – old immigrants from northern and western Europe came seeking better life; new immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe searching for opportunity to escape worse living conditions back home and often did not stay in the US
196. Cult of domesticity – Victorian standards confined women to the home to create an artistic environment as a statement of cultural aspirations
197. William Marcy Tweed – leader of Tammany Hall, gained large sums of money through the political machine, prosecuted by Samuel Tilden and sent to jail
198. Tammany Hall – Democratic political machine in NYC, “supported” immigrants and poor people of the city, who were needed for Democratic election victories
199. Theodore Dreiser, Sister Carrie, The Financier – attacked industrial elite, called for business regulation, publisher refused works breaking with Victorian ideals
200. Regionalist and naturalist writers – writing took a more realistic approach on the world, regionalist writers focused on local life (Sarah Orne Jewett), naturalist writers focused on economy and psychology (Stephen Crane)
201. Bland-Allison Act (1878) – government compromised to buy and coin $2-4 million/month; government stuck to minimum and inflation did not occur (lower prices); economy grew
202. Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) – government to buy silver to back money in addition to gold
203. James G. Blaine – Republican candidate for president in 1884, quintessence of spoils system; highly disgusted the mugwumps (many Republicans turned to Democrat Cleveland)
204. Pendleton Civil Service Act – effectively ended spoils system and established civil service exams for all government positions, under Pres. Garfield
205. Farmers’ Alliance movement – Southern and Midwestern farmers expressing discontent, supported free silver and subtreasury plan (cash advance on future crop – farmers had little cash flow during the year), criticized national banks
• Greenback Party – supported expanded money supply, health/safety regulations, benefits for workers and farmers, granger(farmer)-supported
• Populist Party – emerged from Farmers’ Alliance movement (when subtreasury plan was defeated in Congress), denounced Eastern Establishment that suppressed the working classes; Ignatius Donnelly (utopian author), Mary E Lease, Jerry Simpson
206. Convict-lease system – blacks who went to prison taken out and used for labor in slave-like conditions, enforced southern racial hierarchy
207. Civil Rights Cases – Civil Rights Act of 1875 declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court, as the fourteenth amendment protected people from governmental infringement of rights and had no effect on acts of private citizens
208. Plessy v. Ferguson – Supreme Court legalized the “separate but equal” philosophy
209. Munn v. Illinois – private property subject to government regulation when property is devoted to public interest; against railroads
210. Jim Crow laws – educational and residential segregation; inferior facilities allotted to African-Americans, predominantly in South
211. Coxey’s Army – Coxey and unemployed followers marched on Washington for support in unemployment relief by inflationary public works program
212. Panic of 1893 – 8,000 businesses collapsed (including railroads); due to stock market crash, overbuilding of railroads, heavy farmer loans, economic disruption by labor efforts, agricultural depression; decrease of gold reserves led to Cleveland’s repeal of Sherman Silver Purchase Act

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213. William Jennings Bryan – repeat candidate for president, proponent of silver-backing (16:1 platform), cross of gold speech against gold standard; Democratic candidate (1896)
• Free silver – Populists campaigned for silver-backed money rather than gold-backed, believed to be able to relieve working conditions and exploitation of labor
214. Triangle Shirtwaist fire – workers unable to escape (locked into factory), all died; further encouraged reform movements for working conditions
215. Gifford Pinchot – head of federal Division of Forestry, contributed to Roosevelt’s natural conservation efforts
216. Frederick W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management – increase working output by standardizing procedures and rewarding those who worked fast; efficiency
217. Industrial Workers of the World – supported Socialists, militant unionists and socialists, advocated strikes and sabotaging politics, aimed for an umbrella union similar to Knights of Labor, ideas too radical for socialist cause
• “Big Bill” Haywood – leader of IWW, from Western Federation of Miners
218. Thorstein Veblen, The Theory of the Leisure Class – satirized wealthy captains of industry, workers and engineers as better leaders of society
219. Herbert Croly, The Promise of American Life – activist government to serve all citizens (cf. Alexander Hamilton); founded New Republic magazine
220. John Dewey – social ideals to be encouraged in public school (stress on social interaction), learning by doing
221. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. – law meant to evolve as society evolves, opposed conservative majority
222. Booker T. Washington – proponent of gradual gain of equal rights for African-Americans
• “Atlanta Compromise” speech – given by BTW to ease whites’ fears of integration, assuring them that separate but equal was acceptable, ideas challenged by DuBois
223. WEB DuBois, Souls of Black Folk – opposed BTW’s accommodation policies, called for immediate equality, formed Niagara Movement to support his ideas
224. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People – formed by white progressives, adopted goals of Niagara Movement, in response to Springfield Race Riots
225. Muckrakers – uncovered the “dirt” on corruption and harsh quality of city/working life; heavily criticized by Theodore Roosevelt; Ida Tarabell (oil companies), David Graham Phillips (Senate), Aschen School (child labor – photography), mass magazines McClure’s and Collier’s
• Upton Sinclair, The Jungle – revealed unsanitary nature of meat-packing industry, inspired Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
• Thomas Nast – political muckraking cartoonist, refused bribes to stop criticism
226. Robert La Follette – created the Wisconsin Idea (as governor of Wisconsin) – regulated railroad, direct-primary system, increased corporate taxes, reference library for lawmakers
227. Mann Act – made it illegal to transport women across state borders for “immoral purposes,” violated by black boxer Jack Johnson (w/ white woman)
228. Women’s Christian Temperance Union – led by Francis Willard, powerful “interest group” following the civil war, urged women’s suffrage, led to Prohibition
229. Charlotte Perkins Gilman – women must gain economic rights in order to impact society (cf. rising divorce rates)
230. Northern Securities Case – Northern Securities Company (JP Morgan and James G. Hill - railroads) seen by Roosevelt as “bad” trust, Supreme Court upheld his first trust-bust
231. Theodore Roosevelt – first “modern” president, moderate who supported progressivism (at times conservative), bypassed congressional opposition (cf. Jackson), significant role in world affairs
232. Square Deal – Roosevelt’s plan that aimed to regulate corporations (Anthracite coal strike, Dept. of Commerce and Labor, Elkins and Hepburn Acts), protect consumers (meat sanitation), and conserve natural resources (Newlands Reclamation Act)
233. Preservationism vs. Conservationism – Roosevelt and Pinchot sided on conservation rather than preservation (planned and regulated use of forest lands for public and commercial uses)
234. William H. Taft – “trustbuster” (busted twice as many as Roosevelt), conservation and irrigation efforts, Postal Savings Bank System, Payne-Aldrich Tariff (reduction of tariff, caused Republican split)
235. Bull Moose Party – party formed from Republican split by Roosevelt, more progressive values, leaving “Republican Old Guard” to control Republican party
236. New Nationalism – federal government to increase power over economy and society by means of progressive reforms, developed by Roosevelt (after presidency)
237. New Freedom – ideas of Wilson: small enterprise, states’ rights, more active government, trustbusting, left social issues up to the states
238. Woodrow Wilson – Democratic candidate 1912, stood for antitrust, monetary change, and tariff reduction; far less active than Roosevelt, Clayton Anti-trust Act (to enforce Sherman), Child Labor Act
239. Federal Reserve Act – created Federal Reserve System, regional banks set up for twelve separate districts, final authority of each bank lay with the Federal Reserve Board, paper money to be issued “Federal Reserve Notes”

Imperialism (1885-1920)
240. Pan-Americanism – James G. Blaine sought to open up Latin American markets to the U.S.; rejected by Latin America due to fear of U.S. dominance and satisfaction with European market
241. Yellow journalism (Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst) – aimed to excite American imperialist interests; media bias, subjective representation of events
242. Jingoism – belligerent nationalism against other threatening nations
243. Secretary of State John Hay – ex-Lincoln secretary; worked to gain Open Door Notes’ acceptance from the major powers
244. Open Door Policy – sought to eliminate spheres of influence and avoid European monopolies in China; unaccepted by the powers in mind
245. Spanish American War (1898) – McKinley reluctant; armed intervention to free Cuba from Spain; Roosevelt’s “Rough Riders” made attack on Spanish at Cuba
• Explosion of USS Maine – meant to provide evacuation opportunity for Americans in Cuba; internal accidental explosion blamed on Spanish mines, leading to Spanish-American War
• Platt Amendment – U.S. would ensure that Cuba would be protected from European powers and maintain a place in Cuban affairs; provided coal and naval stations
246. US acquisitions: Philippines, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam – granted to U.S. at the end of Spanish-American War; Philippines were captured after treaty, and thus not part of spoils, but kept as territory with an inevitable movement for independence; Philippines and Hawaii steps toward Asia
• Naval battle in Manila Bay, Philippines – Admiral Dewey defeated Spanish initially; American troops (aided by Aguinaldo’s insurgents) captured Manila, leading to annexation
247. TR mediates Russo-Japanese War – secretly sponsored peace negotiations so as to prevent Japanese or Russian monopoly on Asia; concerned with safety of Philippines
248. President Theodore Roosevelt – military and naval preparedness
249. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine – U.S. felt it was its duty to “watch out” for the interests of other countries in the Western hemisphere; provided justification for invasions of Latin America.
250. Panama Canal – needed to protect new Pacific acquisitions, U.S. took over the project from the French after overcoming Clatyton-Bulwer Treaty (prohibited exclusive control of canal) with the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty
251. “Gentlemen’s Agreement” (1908) – in response to Japanese discrimination in San Fran schools; Japanese to stop laborers into U.S., Californians forbidden to ban Japanese from public schools
252. “Dollar Diplomacy” – government would protect America’s foreign investments with any force needed; under president Taft
253. Moral Diplomacy – intervention in Mexican Revolution (Madero overthrew dictator Diaz) to overthrow Madero out of fear of property confiscation, General Huerta (seen as “brute” by Wilson, sought new leader) replaced Madero
254. Invasion of Mexico, Pancho Villa – Huerta’s enemy, reluctantly supported by U.S.; U.S. sought Villa’s submission due to terrorism, eventually assassinated; Wilson’s policy highly unpopular

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World War I (1910-1920)
255. Lusitania – British passenger liner secretly carrying ammunition sunk by German u-boat, included American passengers
256. Zimmerman Note – intercepted by Britain; Germany proposed alliance with Mexico, using bribe of return of TX, NM, and AZ; Japan included in alliance
257. Unrestricted submarine warfare – Germany announced that it would sink all (including American) ships, attempt to involve U.S. in war
258. Creel Committee – Committee on Public Information; aimed to sell America and the world on Wilson’s war goals; propaganda, censorship, “four-minute men” speeches, “Liberty Leagues” (spy on community)
259. War Industries Board – attempted to centralize production of war materials; ineffective due to American desire for laissez-faire government
260. Conscription policies – Selective Service Act to require men to register with few exceptions; women and blacks drafted/enlisted, highly successful
261. Herbert Hoover’s Food Administration – relied on voluntary compliance (no formal laws), propaganda; high prices set on commodities to encourage production, Prohibition
262. Wilson’s 14 points – public treaties, free trade, free seas, reduced armament burdens, anti-imperialism, independence to minorities, international organization
263. League of Nations – foreshadowed in 14 points, hoped to guarantee political independence and integrity of all countries
264. Great Migration – mass migration northward; mainly blacks migrating from the southern states into the north hoping for less discrimination
265. Lodge Reservations – 14 formal amendments to the treaty for the League of Nations; preserved Monroe Doctrine, Congress desired to keep declaration of war to itself
266. Isolationism – avoided league of Nations, opposed Latin American involvement
267. Espionage Act and Sedition Act – fines and imprisonment for aiding the enemy or hindering U.S. military; forbade any form of criticism of the government and military
268. Schenk v. U.S. – upheld constitutionality of Espionage Act; Congress right to limit free speech during times of war
269. “Red Scare” (1919) – anti-communist crusades due to fear of radicalism spurred by Bolshevik rebellion
270. Palmer Raids – Congressional support to raid houses of radicals believed to have connections to communism
271. “Red Summer,” race riots (1919) – spurred by Great Migration, large-scale riots, lynchings, &c.

The 1920s and 1930s
272. Nativism – severe immigration laws to discourage and discriminate against foreigners, believed to erode old-fashioned American values
• Birth of a Nation – spawned resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan based on The Clansman
• Ku Klux Klan – spread quickly; opposed everything that was not White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (WASP) (and conservative), Stephenson’s faults and jail sentence led to demise
• National Origins Act (1924) – reduced quota, reduced numbers from eastern and southern Europe, Asians banned, Canadians and Latin Americans exempt
• Sacco & Vanzetti Trial – prejudiced jury sentenced them to death, caused riots around the world, new trial denied
273. Scopes Trial – Darwinian (influenced by jazz age and new scientific ideas) against Fundamentalist (the Bible and Creationism); John Scopes convicted for teaching Darwinism (defended by Clarence Darrow); Scopes found guilty
274. Prohibition, rise of organized crime – supported by women and churches, instituted by Volstead Act, lacked enforcement; bootlegging and speakeasies, Al Capone and John Dillinger – gangsters and organized crime (casual breaking of the law)
275. Frederick W. Taylor, Scientific Management – efficient working methods to increase productivity; usually resulted in lower wages (hated by workers), power to managers
276. Henry Ford’s assembly line – mass production of the Model-T, workers as potential consumers (raise wages), supported other industries and raised employment
277. Bruce Barton: The Man Nobody Knows – glorification of business, Jesus as a businessman, relationship between religion and manufacturing
278. Radio – new industry, leisure time with family, sports industry stimulated, political advertisements, newscasts, broadcast of music
279. Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) – Alice Paul; shocked traditionalism, League of Women Voters supported; new organization of women who were now more independent
280. Flappers – expressed new freedom of women, sexual revolution
281. Margaret Sanger & birth control – illegal, but widely accepted; with new promiscuity
282. Jazz – dance music, slave spirituals adapted into improvisation and ragtime; jazz migrated along with blacks in the Great Migration
283. “Lost Generation” – new generation of writers outside of Protestantism, resentment of ideals betrayed by society; Fitzgerald (despised materialism, Great Gatsby), Hemingway (disillusionment, war experience), Lewis (against upper class – Babbit and Mainstreet), Faulkner (stream of consciousness), T.S. Eliot
284. Harlem Renaissance authors: Langston Hughes, McKay, Zora Neale Hurston, Countee Cullet – praise and expression of black culture of the time

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285. Marcus Garvey, United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) – “Back to Africa” movement for racial pride and separatism; inspired self-confidence in blacks
286. Charles Lindbergh – considered a hero for his solo crossing of the Atlantic by plane
287. Washington Disarmament Conference (1921) – US, Britain, Japan, France, and Italy to reduce naval tonnage and halt construction for 10 years; US and Japan to respect Pacific territorial holdings, Kellog-Briand Pact to “outlaw war”
288. Dawes Plan (1924) – to make German reparations from WWI more accessible to Germans; evacuation of troops from Germany, reorganization of the Reichsbank, and foreign loans
289. Conservative policies of Harding and Coolidge – lowering of income taxes for wealthy (trickle-down economics), refusal to create higher prices to help farmers (McNary-Haugen Bill)
290. Fordney-McCumber Tariff (1922) & Smoot-Hawley Tariff (1930) – raised tariffs extremely high on manufactured goods; benefited domestic manufacturers, but limited foreign trade
291. Teapot Dome scandal – Albert Fall accused of accepting bribes for access to government oil in Teapot Dome, Wyoming
292. Herbert Hoover, secretary of commerce – known as “wartime food czar;” created recreation policies and reintroduced leisure culture and conservation ethic to get Americans escaping the cities and improve tourism, &c.
293. Andrew Mellon, secretary of the treasury – introduced the “trickle-down” economics theory in order to promote business and increase money available for speculation
294. Farm crisis – agricultural depression as precursor to the depression; unheeded omen of problems in the economic structure (prices too low – too much supply for the demand)
295. Causes of the depression – rise in stock prices and speculation, decline of construction industry, mistaken “trickle-down” economics, reliance on credit
• Stock market crash (1929) – stock prices fell drastically; without buyers, the stocks became essentially worthless; cause bank crashes, &c.
296. Hoover’s policy of voluntarism – emphasized importance of private charities to help the depression
• Hoovervilles – sets of cardboard box houses that epitomized the country’s blame on Hoover for the cause of the Depression
297. Bonus Army – veterans from WWI sought their pensions before they were too old to use them; they were denied and were run out of Washington (violently, by MacArthur)
298. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) – attempted to boost economy by making loans to banks and insurance companies, hoping to restart them
299. President Franklin Roosevelt – introduced his “New Deal,” won election by a relative landslide (he was not Hoover, whom the public now did not trust)
• New Deal – FDR’s plan (although vague during the campaign) to restart the economy and pull America out of the Great Depression
• “Brain trust” – FDR’s inner circle of experts rather than just politicians in the cabinet
300. “Hundred days” – accomplished great number of relief, recovery, and reform efforts; sought practical solutions to the problems by experimentation
• Emergency Banking Relief Act – four-day banking holiday to create controlled inflation, followed by reopening of sound banks, and reorganization of unsound banks
301. “First” New Deal Programs: 1933-35, improved (but not recovered) economy
a. National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) & National Recovery Administration (NRA) – prevented extreme competition, labor-management disputes, and over-production; federally coordinated consensus of business leaders (Hugh Johnson) to regulate businesses (wages, limits, working conditions)
b. Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) – subsidies to farmers to decrease production and thus increase prices
c. Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) – hydroelectric power to river valley; brought social and economic development to very poor area
d. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) – employed young jobless men with government projects on work relief and environment
e. Federal Emergency Relief Act (FERA) – provided more funds to state and local relief efforts
f. Public Works Administration (PWA) – Harold Ickles, provided public construction projects
g. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) – insured deposits < $5000, reassured American public of the worth of banks
302. “Second” New Deal Programs: 1935-38, reform-minded, more political
a. Social Security Act of 1935 (SSA) – used withheld money from payrolls to provide aid to the unemployed, industrial accident victims, and young mothers; principle of government responsibility for social welfare
b. Works Progress Administration (WPA) – Harry Hopkins; provide work for unemployed and construct public works, &c. through Emergency Relief Appropriation Act; much like Civil Works Administration
c. Wagner Act / National Labor Relations Act – collective bargaining rights, closed shops permitted (where workers must join unions), outlawed anti-union tactics
d. Fair Labor Standards Act – banned child labor, established minimum wage
303. Keynesian economics – philosophy that deficit spending during a depression would increase purchasing power and stimulate economy; FDR disagreed with the policy at first and borrowed money to cover deficits
304. Indian Reorganization Act (1934) – halted sale of tribal lands, enabled tribes to regain unallocated lands; repealed Dawes Severalty Act of 1887; helped secure Indians’ entry into New Deal associations; led by John Collier
305. Frances Perkins, Secretary of Labor – first female cabinet member
306. Butler v. U.S. – killed the AAA, although FDR insisted on continuing by creating smaller state-level AAAs
307. Schechter v. U.S. – unconstitutionalized the NRA due to delegation of legislative authority from Congress to executive
308. Court Packing – Judiciary Reorganization Bill; FDR’s attempt to put in extra judges who would support him without doubt
309. “Okies” and “Arkies” – Americans who were forced out of their homes in Oklahoma and Arkansas (respectively) due to the dust storms and drought known as the Dust Bowl
310. Deportations of Mexicans – nationalists against foreign non-English speaking workers (took jobs away from American men); encouraged to leave the U.S.
311. Critics of FDR: Father Charles Coughlin (benefited only wealthy people and corporations), Huey Long (“share our wealth”), Francis Townshend (Old Age Revolving Pension)
312. Split of AFL in 1935 – loss of members due to new following of CIO and discrimination
313. Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) – created by John L. Lewis for unskilled labor, organized “sit-down strike” against GM to work for recognition
314. Dorothea Lange – hired to photograph ordinary Americans experiencing the depression

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World War II (1920-1945)
315. Good Neighbor Policy – withdrawal of American troops from foreign nations (especially Latin America) to improve international relations and unite western hemisphere; Clark Memorandum (rebukes the “big stick”); peaceful resolution of Mexican oil fields
316. Isolationism in 1920s & 1930s – Americans concerned with economic depression; sought to avoid European involvement, no apparent immediate threats
317. Neutrality Acts, 1935-37 – prohibited aiding of belligerent nations, banned civilian involvement; limited power of president during international war, built up armed forces
318. Quarantine Speech, 1937 – FDR encouraged democracies to quarantine their opponents (economic embargos); criticized by isolationists
319. Neutrality Act, 1939 – allowed sale of weaponry to democracies on “cash-and-carry” basis, avoided full-blown war; danger zones proclaimed; solved American unemployment crisis
320. “Four Freedoms” speech – FDR asked for increased authority to aid Britain; freedom of speech/expression, of religion, from want, from fear; resulted in Lend-Lease
321. Lend-Lease Act (1941) – President to offer military supplies to nations “vital to the defense of the US”; ended US neutrality (economic war against Germany); Hitler began to sink American ships (limited scale)
322. Pearl Harbor – Japanese bombing of ships in harbor; resulted in FDR’s request for declaration of war against Japan; Germany and Italy responded with declarations of war
323. First American strategy in WWII – FDR and Churchill agreed to defeat Germany first rather than concentrate on Japan
324. Important WWII Battles: Midway (US Signal Corps, turning point of war in the Pacific), D-Day (Eisenhower’s amphibious invasion of Normandy, led to depletion of German forces), Stalingrad (Russians defeated Germans, saved Moscow and Leningrad, turning point in Europe)
325. Japanese internment – fear of Japanese-Americans as traitors, sent off (by law) to internment camps; removal of deemed threats in military areas
326. Reasons for US to drop atomic bombs – risk of too many casualties and high costs for hand-to-hand combat/invasion, Japanese surrender unlikely
327. Yalta Conference (1945) – established world organization; Soviet Union pledged to allow democratic procedures in Eastern Europe; pledge broken, led to Cold War
328. Potsdam Conference (1945) – decided to punish war crimes, established program for de-Nazification of Germany
329. The Homefront – westward migration of workers (new economic opportunities, esp. aircraft industry), high rates of divorce and family/juvenile violence, women encouraged to work in factories, still held inferior to men
• Rationing – Americans at home reminded to conserve materials in all aspects of life to support the military; resulted in saving up of money to cause economic boom after war
330. Rosie the Riveter – symbol of women workers during the war
331. John L. Lewis – through CIO, led three coal mine strikes (some of the very few strikes during the time period)
332. Bracero program – brought in Mexicans for temporary jobs, concentrated in southern CA, given extremely poor working conditions (as they were not American citizens)
• Zoot Suit riots – racism riots against Mexican laborers (imported for jobs)
333. A. Philip Randolph and the March on Washington – led Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters: threatened a siege on DC if FDR did not agree to end discrimination in military
334. Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) – prohibited discrimination in any government-related work; increased black employment
335. President Harry Truman – first president to show positive response to civil rights movement; worked heavily on keeping Soviet spread of communism in check
336. Jackie Robinson – first African-American in major league baseball
337. Desegregation of Armed Forces (1947) – banned racial discrimination in federal practices; To Secure These Rights called for desegregation, anti-lynching, end of poll taxes
338. Dixiecrats, 1948 – fought for old Southern way of life (states’ rights), attempted to gain higher standing within Democratic party; aimed to deny Truman enough electoral votes to avoid his reelection by nominating Strom Thurmond (SC governor)
339. Fair Deal – preservation of New Deal, attempt at additions; raised minimum wage, public housing, old-age insurance extension, agricultural price supports (lowering of farm price)
340. George Kennan – US ambassador to Russia, notified Truman of Soviet ambitions to expand empire and overthrow other political forces; established concern for Soviet policy in Eastern Europe, Germany, and the Middle East
• Containment – aimed to prevent spread of communism
341. Truman Doctrine – support people oppressed by communism and non-democratic governments; worked with democratic governments in Greece, Turkey, and Israel
342. Marshall Plan – US provided financial assistance to recover economies in Europe; aimed towards anti-communist governments in France, Italy, and Germany; Eastern European nations prohibited from receiving help from US
343. Berlin Airlift – Soviets cut Berlin off from the rest of Germany by blockade; US organized airlift to drop supplies into Britain; blockade lifted in May 1949
344. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) – response to Berlin crisis, warned Moscow that threats would be answered with force; Warsaw Pact formed by Soviets in response
345. Soviet atomic bomb – September 1949, US no longer held monopoly; two atomic powers
346. China turns communist – Mao Zedong (communist) defeated nationalist forces of Kai-Shek (supported by US); seen as defeat for US, not officially fully recognized until 1973
347. Korean War – Soviet-aided North Korea attack on South Korea; MacArthur named general on behalf of UN (excluded Russia), US supplied majority of troops; recapture of South Korea and suppression of North forces to northern border; introduction of Chinese, MacArthur fired for suggestion to use nuclear weapons on China; nuclear incentives for peace negotiations
348. President Dwight D. Eisenhower – Republican, popular hero of WWII; “dynamic conservatism” as a middle ground btw. Rep. and Dem.; Interstate Highway System (ulterior motive of weapons transportation); St. Lawrence Seaway opened Great Lakes to Atlantic Ocean via locks; Depts. Of Health, Education, and Welfare to oversee New Deal programs
349. Conformity in the 1950s – strong patriotism and need to conform to try to avoid blame during red scare, non-churchgoers, unmarried, and critics suspected as communists
• Suburbia – middle class; white flight from urban areas due to black migration; government supported insurance for homeowners and builders
• “Baby Boom” – unprecedented sudden growth spurt of American population (especially urban and suburban areas)


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