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Chapter 23 - The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914

Chapter 23
The Emergence of Industrial Society in the West, 1750-1914

  1. Introduction
    1. Introduction
      1. Major Themes
        1. Political Upheaval – age of revolution 1775-1848
        2. Exportation of western European institutions to settler societies
      2. Major Changes
        1. Monarchies replaced by parliaments (extensive voting)
        2. North America emerges as major force in world economics
      3. Series of disruptions
        1. New cultural forms – some challenge/support Enlightened thought
        2. New states – Germany and United States
        3. Led to new alliances – which led to the Great War
      4. Phases of Western transformation
        1. 1750-1775 – Period of growing crisis
        2. 1775-1850 – political revolution simultaneously with industrial revolution
        3. 1850-1914 – implications of industrial revolution
    2. Optimism in Chaos
      1. Marquis de Condorcet – “Progress of the Human Mind”
        1. Due to literacy/education – mankind on the verge of perfection
          1. This humble man died in jail
  2. The Age of Revolution
    1. Forces of Change
      1. Cultural change – change in intellectual thought – Enlightenment
        1. Political thought – challenged government
          1. Jean-Jacques Rousseau – government based on general will
          2. Gap between leaders and thinkers – this isn’t a good precedent
        2. Also encouraged economic/social change
      2. New businesspeople challenged old aristocracy
        1. New power structure vs. old economic values
      3. Population revolution
        1. better border control – kept out those annoying immigrants with disease
        2. improved nutrition
        3. Effects
          1. upper class needed to control their position – feel threatened
          2. can’t inherit property > join working class
          3. rapid expansion of domestic manufacturing
            1. protoindustrialization – set foundation for future capitalism
              1. putting out system – capitalism out of your house
                1. run by merchants – materials, work orders, sales
          4. altered behaviors
            1. consumer mentality – keeping up with the Joneses
            2. premarital sex
            3. parents lose control – can’t threaten inheritance anymore
            4. defiance of authority
    2. The American Revolution
      1. A Sortof Revolution – change of power from one group of elites to another
        1. Enlightened ideas used to justify switch, desire for political office
        2. Atlantic coast colonies win
          1. Why? - British blunders + French help
          2. Set up new government – incorporated Enlightened ideas
            1. Montesquieu – checks and balances – divided branches
            2. Civil liberties – but…kept that thing called slavery
          3. Voting rights
    3. Crisis in France in 1789
      1. This would set precedent that would transform all of Europe
      2. Causes
        1. Ideological factors – Enlightenment pressure – limit Church/aristocracy
        2. Social changes – merchant class wanted more power
        3. Peasants pressed by population issues – want freedom from aristocracy
        4. Catalyst – economic problems by French gov’t - series of wars/Versailles
      3. Louis XVI – calls Estates General
        1. Supposed to be three estates – but turns into National Assembly
        2. King gives this legitimacy after riots, women marching, and chaos
      4. Summer of discontent
        1. National Assembly – passes Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
        2. Storming of Bastille – symbol of repression – destroyed almost vacant prison
        3. Great Fear – riots on countryside lead to Great Flight
        4. Led to monumental changes
          1. Seizure of church lands
          2. New parliament to restrict king
          3. Freedom religion, press, property
    4. The French Revolution: Radical and Authoritarian Phases
      1. Enters Radical Phase in 1792
        1. Reign of Terror – get rid of monarchy
        2. Push revolution further
        3. Executed potential threats – guillotine becomes weapon of choice
      2. Maximilien Robespierre
        1. Leader of radical phase
          1. Lost touch with issues of the people
            1. Creates new religion – cult of the Supreme Being
            2. Doesn’t listen to issues of urban dwellers
          2. Eventually arrested himself
      3. New changes
        1. Proclaimed universal manhood suffrage
        2. Universal weights and measures – crazy dudes
        3. slavery abolished
        4. universal military conscription – loyalty to the state
          1. Now France has a huge, motivated army
          2. Makes Europe nervous – spread revolutionary ideals
      4. Nationalism – new spirit – national anthem
        1. replaced allegiance to locality and the Church
      5. Enter Napoleon – followed conservative phase – oligarchy
        1. Centralized system of secondary schools/universities
        2. Meritocracy – achievement based on skills, not birth
        3. Religious freedom
        4. Tries to conquer Europe
          1. Repelled in Russia
          2. Tore down local governments elsewhere
            1. They now gave loyalty to the nation
    5. A Conservative Settlement and the Revolutionary Legacy
      1. Congress of Vienna – national lines drawn
        1. Tried to create a balance of power – create strong powers around France
          1. Prussia gains power in Germany
          2. Piedmont in Northern Italy
          3. Britain gains new territory around the world
          4. Russia maintains control of Poland
        2. Tried to restore the old days – conservative – monarchy
          1. But…liberals push for political change
            1. More say for the people
            2. Gov’t stays out of individual issues
            3. Constitutional rules for religion, press, and assembly
            4. Economic reforms
            5. Better education
          2. Then there was the…radicals
            1. Wanted way more power for people – universal suffrage
            2. Socialism – attack private property and divide equally
        3. Revolutions from students and urban artisans – most to gain
          1. Greece breaks away from Ottomans, Italy, Germany, Belgium, France
          2. U.S. takes away land rights – Jacksonian Democracy
          3. Britain – Reform Bill of 1832 – parliamentary vote to middle class men
          4. By 1830s Western Europe has solid parliaments
    6. Industrialization and the Revolutions of 1848
      1. Now factory workers are getting ticked off – whatever happened to skilled labor?
        1. Chartist movement – regulate technologies – slow down so we have a job
      2. Revolutions of 1848 – climax of protest
        1. France starts it up again – socialism – government supported jobs/women’s rights
          1. Ended up replacing with another authoritarian – Napoleon’s nephew
        2. Nationalism demands in Germany and Austria-Hungary – autonomy
      3. Revolution fails again
        1. revolution too drastic – need to choose more moderate methods
        2. better transportation reduces food crisis – the major catalyst
        3. Better riot control police
      4. But…industrial business class starts to replace aristocrats – new money vs. old money
        1. Now it became those with money vs. those without
  3. The Consolidation of the Industrial Order, 1850-1914
    1. Introduction
      1. Infrastructure gradually improves
        1. Railroads, canals, urbanization
          1. Britain – 50% live in cities – first time in human history
        2. Handle city problems
          1. Sanitation, parks, regulation of food/housing facilities
          2. Crime rates drop/stabilize
    2. Adjustments to Industrial Life
      1. Family life changes
        1. Low birth rates/low death rates – kids more important – not source of income
        2. Better health for kids – only 10% are dying before 10 years old – yippee!
        3. Louis Pasteur discovers germs – better health/sanitation
      2. Consumer culture begins
        1. More money to buy products – living above subsistence
      3. Rise in corporations
        1. more stock owned companies
        2. labor unions created
          1. workers bargain for better pay/conditions’
      4. Farmer life improves
        1. More connected
        2. Developed staple crops
        3. Cooperatives to market crops/purchase supplies – can be done cheaper if work together
    3. Political Trends and the Rise of New Nations
      1. Governments start to gradually enact reforms to avoid revolution
        1. Key issues – voting rights, freedom of religion, conserve wealth of old
      2. Promoting active foreign policy creates nationalist fervor
        1. Expanding empire – people forget domestic issues – no, really?
      3. Creating nations
        1. Count Camillo di Cavour – Piedmont unites Italy - alliance with France
          1. Fought Austria for Northern provinces – peninsula unites
          2. Revolution from control of the Church
        2. Otto von Bismarck – unites Germany
          1. Forced conflict with other nations to unify German people
          2. Defeated France in 1871 – new Germany
          3. Parliament has lower house based on universal suffrage
        3. America stays one nation – industrial North defeats rural-based South
          1. industrial weaponry and transport systems give hint of war to come
        4. Goal now becomes keeping political power and getting elected
          1. For the most part, status quo is kept whether liberal or conservative party
          2. Italy calls it trasformismo – basically the peaceful transfer of power in which there is no radical change, but you add the suffix “-mo” at the end
    4. The Social Question and New Government Functions
      1. West starts having civil service exams – just about 1000 years after Chinese
      2. New schools
        1. Increase literacy rates
        2. Teach domestic roles to women
        3. Preach nationalism – language, history, attack minorities/immigrant cultures
      3. Welfare programs to help old, injured, unemployed – Bismarck ahead of the game
      4. Social question – not political/economic equality, but social equality
        1. Socialism – Karl Marx
          1. who controls means of production?
          2. Middle class defeated aristocracy and now it was the workers turn
            1. Eventually class eliminated – proletariats vs. bourgeoisie
          3. Socialists parties grow in popularity across W. Europe
            1. Fiery speakers attract workers
          4. Revision – accomplish social equality peacefully – a compromise
      5. Feminist movements
        1. Equal access to employment, education, vote
        2. Middle class women led the charge
          1. Active, passionate leadership
          2. Window smashing, arson, hunger strikes, petitions, marches
  4. Cultural Transformations
    1. Emphasis on Consumption and Leisure
      1. Better wages + reduction in hours = free time, expendable income
      2. Also, factories produced tons of cheap goods
        1. Advertisement encouraged
        2. Bicycle fad of 1880s
          1. People line up – starts changing clothing of women
      3. Mass leisure culture
        1. Newspapers with fluff – bold headlines/human interest stories
          1. crime, sports, comics, crime, corruption, violence
        2. Live comedy and music
        3. Vacation trips – seaside resorts grow
      4. Team sports
        1. Discipline and coordination necessary
        2. Commercial industry grew – uniforms, rubber balls, stadiums
        3. Hypercommunity loyalties – Go 49ers!!!!
        4. Olympics reintroduced in 1896
      5. New priorities
        1. More secular – people turn to worldly entertainments
        2. Mass leisure allows passion, vicarious participation in sports – “We won!!!”
    2. Advances in Scientific Knowledge
      1. Rising prosperity led to more time for scientific/artistic exploration
        1. Improvements in medicine, agriculture
        2. Still used rationalist perspective – almost solely secular
      2. Charles Darwin – 1859 – Origin of Species
        1. animal/plant species evolve over time from earlier forms
        2. Nature worked through random struggle
        3. Conflicts with religious doctrine
      3. Physics expands – Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity - adds notion of time
      4. Expanding empirical knowledge of humans – statistics for everything
        1. Attempts to explain business cycles, causes of poverty, behavior of crowds
      5. Sigmund Freud – theories of human subconscious to explain behavior
    3. New Directions in Artistic Expression
      1. Some artistic approach reflected logic and daily lives
        1. Charles Dickens – novels on human behavior
        2. Georges Seurat – pointillism
      2. But…a lot of art went off on random tangents
        1. Romanticism – emotion/impression more important than reason/generalization
        2. Start breaking form – no more poetry rhyming, why plot, painting evocative
          1. If you want to be literal, use a camera
        3. Art becomes abstract – art for art’s sake
      3. So…basically…there is no one way of doing things – science, or art
        1. More debate over life – Conservatism vs. liberalism
        2. Tensions in the modern mind
  5. Western Settler Societies
    1. Introduction
      1. Causes of Western expansion
        1. new markets for processed goods
        2. created commercial agriculture in other regions
          1. satisfy need for raw materials, agricultural products
        3. communication/transportation facilitated expansion
        4. Nationalistic rivalries
        5. Businesspeople sought new chances for profit
        6. Missionaries sought chances for profit
        7. Massive European emigration
      2. Success of expansion
        1. Steamships brings technology inland
        2. Improved weaponry – artillery and machine gun
    2. Emerging Power of the United States
      1. First hundred years remained isolated
        1. Improved infrastructure, political system, internal growth, westward expansion
        2. New stream of immigrants in 1850s
        3. Success of America borrowed by Europeans during revolutions
      2. Civil War – industrial North vs. agricultural South
        1. Civil War freed slaves, but South eventually reenslaved through sharecropping
        2. Accelerated America’s industrialization
          1. Expand transportation networks
          2. Armaments manufacturers need markets after war
          3. American agriculture – mechanized – exported to world
        3. American military, art, technology had very little impact abroad
      3. European Settlements in Canada, Australia and New Zealand
        1. Borrowed heavily from Western Civilization
          1. Parliamentary legislatures and economies mirrored
          2. Cultural styles borrowed from Europe
        2. Remained part of British Empire
        3. Canada
          1. Tried to create gradual self-government to avoid revolution
          2. Quebec created to ease French tension
          3. New immigrants poor in during last part of 18th century
        4. Australia
          1. 1788-1853 – exported convicts
          2. Discovery of gold increases population in 1850s
          3. Unified federal nation claimed on January 1, 1900
        5. New Zealand
          1. Conflict with Maoris – attempts to convert to Christianity
          2. Agricultural population
          3. Parliament allowed to rule self without interference from mother country
        6. Connections
          1. All remained agricultural – necessitated exchanges with England
          2. Themes of liberalism, socialism, modern art, and science transported
          3. Received new waves of immigrants during 19th century
            1. Export of people huge issue
          4. Industrialization leads to rapid colonization
            1. Communication and transportation created quickly
  6. Diplomatic Tensions and World War I
    1. Introduction
      1. Germany becomes new power in Europe by 1880s – secured alliances
      2. World ran out of places to carve up by 1900
        1. Africa gone, only a few areas left
      3. Britain threatened by Germany’s industrialization and navy
      4. France more concerned with Germany – aligns self with Russia/Britain
    2. The New Alliance System
      1. Two alliance systems dominate
        1. Triple Alliance – Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
        2. Triple Entente – Britain, Russia, France
      2. Arms race created to intimidate/defend against rivals
        1. military conscription during peacetime
      3. Each alliance had unstable partner
        1. Russia – revolution in 1905 – would it be crippled?
        2. Austria-Hungary – nationality disputes – want self-determination/autonomy
      4. Balkan states only adding to difficulty
        1. Balkan nations broke away from Ottoman Empire
        2. Serbia expanding – this threatens Austria-Hungary that has Serbian population
          1. Gabrio Princip kills Archduke Ferdinand
          2. Austria vows to punish Serbia – Russia comes to aid
          3. Germany attacks France then Russia before they can mobilize
    3. Diplomacy and Society
      1. Nationalist competition got out of control – no other civilizations to threaten
      2. Governments attempts to distract population through foreign actions
        1. But…once imperialism was too easy, then what?
      3. Plus…military build-ups – need buyers for products
      4. Mass newspapers shape nationalist pride
      5. Initially people excited about war
        1. Some people thought it was a nice break from stability of the world
  7. Global Connections
    1. Imperialism and redefinition of world economy put Europe interests everywhere
    2. Russia tried to avoid situation – warned against parliamentary politics
    3. European ideas of socialistm liberalism, radicalism were exported to other regions around the world – later used to overthrow oppressors
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