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Chapter 24 - Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order

Chapter 24
Industrialization and Imperialism:
The Making of the European Global Order

  1. I. Introduction
    1. A. Change in Europe’s relationship with world
      1. 1. Change in goods – no longer spices/mfg goods, but natural resources for machines
      2. 2. Trade balance shifts
        1. a. Need for markets for Europe mfg products
        2. b. 1840 exported more than imported – finally, people want to buy Europe stuff
      3. 3. Reasons for expansion
        1. a. Missionaries no longer state sponsored
          1. i. Europe no longer threatened by anyone
        2. b. European rivalries now fueled expansion
      4. 4. Ability to control empire
        1. a. Industrialization gave Europe power to control center
        2. b. Steamships/railways put everyone in reach of European landgrab
  2. II. The Shift to Land Empires in Asia
    1. A. Introduction
      1. 1. Initially limited interest of Europeans to control regions – too expensive
      2. 2. Communication realities prevented centralized control – led to local administration
    2. B. Prototype: The Dutch Advance on Java
      1. 1. Initially Dutch paid tribute to Mataram sultans
        1. a. Dutch East India Co. worked w/in system
      2. 2. Later - backed Mataram sultans in intertribal conflicts
        1. a. Every time Dutch helped out, they demanded more land
          1. i. Dutch backing needed due to their organization, weapons, discipline
          2. ii. Finally in 1750s, they’d given up everything
    3. C. Pivot of World Empire: The Rise of the British Rule in India
      1. 1. Initially British East India Company worked with rulers
      2. 2. Later – backed territorial claims, princes used Europeans to settle disputes
        1. b. The usees then become the users
      3. 3. Unlike Dutch however, British Raj (gov’t) came from French/British rivalries
        1. a. 1700s – France/Britain in 5 wars, British won them all, but US
      4. 4. Key battle – 1757 Plassey
        1. a. 3000 British under Robert Clive defeat 50,000 Indians
        2. b. Victory not merely based on numbers issue
          1. i. Brits used Hindu banker money to pay off Indians
          2. ii. Method of getting back at Muslims
        3. c. Teenage nawab Siraj doesn’t have control of force
          1. i. they defect or refuse to fight
    4. D. The Consolidation of British Rule
      1. 1. Mughal Empire gradually breaks down under wars with East India Company
        1. a. As Brits took more land, Indian princes fought other lands to get territory
          1. i. India reduced India
      2. 2. British control
        1. a. Madras, Bombay, Calcutta – administrative centers of three presidencies
        2. b. Local leaders of princely states had to report to British administrators
      3. 3. Reasons for British takeover
        1. a. Muslims/Hindus don’t unite under national identity
        2. b. Some Indians liked fighting for British – uniforms, weapons, pay, treatment
          1. i. 5 to 1 Indians serving British to actual British soldiers
      4. 4. India’s large population made it the key to great empire
        1. a. Indian soldiers used to conquer surrounding areas
        2. b. Became market for investments, manufactured goods
        3. c. Major source of raw materials
    5. E. Early Colonial Society in India and Java
      1. 1. Initially maintained existing social structure
        1. a. Just placed traders/officials above existing system
      2. 2. Tried to bring Europe over to Asia, but not always with success
        1. a. Can’t do the whole Dutch canal thing in Indonesia with mosquitoes
        2. b. Adapted to varying degrees dress, eating, work habits
          1. i. Some refused…bad idea…wool clothes in S. East Asia
          2. ii. Adopted food, hookahs/water pipes, Indian dancing
      3. 3. Racial divide
        1. a. Society had racial discrimination
        2. b. But also…Europeans/Asians mixed – miscegenation – mostly men colonize
    6. F. Social Reform in the Colonies
      1. 1. Initially – maintained religion of existing group
        1. a. Kept Hindu caste system – refused entry to missionaries
      2. 2. But…nabobs – corrupt British leaders who made money while overseas
        1. a. in 1770 Bengal famine kills 1/3 population – obvious reforms needed
        2. b. Lord Charles Cornwallis – took out local autonomy – report directly to Britain
          1. i. But…also mistrusted Indians, made wholesale changes
      3. 3. Why the push for change?
        1. a. Utilitarians – England has best system – why not share?
        2. b. Evangelical religious revival – reform the heathens
      4. 4. How?
        1. a. Push for education
        2. b. Language
        3. c. Infusion of Western technology
        4. d. Get rid of sati – 1830s
          1. i. w/ help from western educated Indian leaders – Ram Mohun Roy
          2. ii. Threatened with physical punishment if they applied sati
      5. 5. Changes – transplanted Western industrial/political revolutions
        1. a. Western ideas, inventions, modes of organization, technology
        2. b. Drawn into global network
        3. c. At schools, model behavior on European exercise, reading, scientific learning
        4. d. Ironically…values taught to Indians, used against them later
  3. III. Industrial Rivalries and the Partition of the World, 1870-1914
    1. A. Introduction
      1. 1. Science/industrial advantages led to European competition between states
        1. a. Beginning 19th century – Britain’s navy makes dominant
        2. b. Belgium, France, Germany, US competing for power
      2. 2. Reasons for colonial expansion
        1. a. Status as great power
        2. b. Raw materials
        3. c. Markets for manufactured goods – needed to keep economies growing
          1. i. European countries suffering from overproduction and unemployment
        4. d. Colonies could be destinations for unemployed
          1. i. markets for surplus goods
      3. 3. Central political leaders took more direct control over running colonies
        1. a. improved communication – telegraph
        2. b. No longer could an explorer alone ratify agreements
          1. i. led to fierce parliamentary debates
      4. 4. Public opinion important
        1. a. mass journalism
        2. b. extension of the vote – universal manhood suffrage
    2. B. Unequal Combat: Colonial Wars and the Apex of European Imperialism
      1. 1. Advances due to Industrial Revolution
        1. a. Access to minerals others didn’t know existed
        2. b. Chemists create even more powerful explosives
        3. c. Metallurgy – mass production of mobile artillery
        4. d. More accurate hand weapons
        5. e. Machine gun as effective battlefield weapon
        6. f. Improved ships
          1. i. Steam engines, iron hulls, massive guns
      2. 2. Areas of Africa/Pacific Islands fought with spears, arrows, leather shields
      3. 3. Some areas resisted
        1. a. Vietnamese guerillas fought back when leaders refused
        2. b. Zulus defeated British at Isandhlwana in 1879
        3. c. But…eventually they would lose…win the battle, but no way they can win war
      4. 4. Only successful methods of resistance
        1. a. guerrilla warfare, sabotage, banditry only match for superior weapons
        2. b. Sometimes spiritual leaders gave encouragement to locals
  4. IV. Patterns of Dominance: Continuity and Change
    1. A. Introduction
      1. 1. Tropical dependencies – small # of Europeans rule a ton of locals
        1. a. Brought under rule suddenly late 19th/early 20th century
      2. 2. Settlement colonies –
        1. a. White Dominions – huge % of land, low % of population
        2. b. Small # of natives, whites majority
          1. i. Natives killed by disease/wars of conquest
        3. c. US, Canada, Australia, Chile, Argentina
      3. 3. Third type – settlement colony variation
        1. a. Large indigenous population + large # of immigrants
          1. i. S. Africa, New Zealand, Hawaii, Algeria, Kenya
        2. b. Numerous clashes over land rights
    2. B. Colonial Regimes and Social Hierarchies in the Tropical Dependencies
      1. 1. Followed pattern of India
        1. a. Played ethnic/cultural divisions against one another
        2. b. West/East Africa – Animists and Christians vs. Muslims
        3. c. These divisions called “tribes” – dehumanizing
      2. 2. Whites lived in capital/provincial cities
        1. a. Local leaders then reported to Europeans
          1. i. Some Western educated
      3. 3. But…education not as pushed in Africa – racism
        1. a. Lack of college graduates – lack of a middle class
          1. i. Learned from mistakes – educated classes in other colonies start revolts
            1. a. Want jobs beyond their capacity and get annoyed
    3. C. Changing Social Relations Between Colonizer and Colonized
      1. 1. As time passed, Europeans became more isolated from locals
        1. a. Women were brought over
          1. i. Safer conditions – health care/segregated living quarters
          2. ii.Discouraged interaction with locals – brothels attended less
        2. b. Whose fault, female or male?
          1. i. Males
            1. a. Passed laws against miscegenation
            2. b. Kept contacts between white women and locals to minimum
          2. ii. Women
            1. a. Had native nannies or servants
        3. c. Only interaction with high ranking natives was at formal occasions
        4. d. Notions of white racial superiority – late 19th century
          1. i. Ranking of races put whites on top – Darwinism gone wrong
          2. ii. Differences between ruler and ruled was inherent
          3. iii. So what’s the point in interacting – you really can’t change them
        5. e. Recreated European life, and spent summers in hill communities
    4. D. Shifts in Methods of Economic Extraction
      1. 1. Attempts to expand export production
        1. a. Teach natives scientific management and encourage to work harder
        2. b. Incentives
          1. i. More money to buy cheap consumer goods
          2. ii. Head/hut taxes must be paid from ivory, palm nuts or wages
            1. a. Congo – flogged and killed if didn’t reach quotas
            2. b. Women and children held hostage
            3. c. Infrastructure created for sole purpose of moving natural resources
            4. d. New areas of cultivation and mining
        3. 2. Raw materials shipped by merchants to be processed in Europe
          1. a. Finished goods sold to Europeans
          2. b. Local economies don’t benefit from entire process
          3. c. Exist for the purpose of making Europeans able to buy cheap, cool stuff
        4. 3. So…not only were they subjugated politically and socially, but also economically
          1. a. Hey…that would be a great essay question
    5. E. Settler Colonies in South Africa and the Pacific
      1. 1. Adopted many of the economic/political practices of tropical dependencies
      2. 2. Settler colonies before 19th century usually wiped out native populuations
        1. a. Disease and battle
      3. 3. Those formed after 19th century had much larger native populations
        1. a. Not killed off by disease – immunities built up over time
        2. b. Settlers had far more clashes with locals over territorial claims
    6. F. South Africa
      1. 1. Dutch colony initially set up as way station/halfway point to India
      2. 2. But…Boers (farmers) started moving inland
        1. a. Subjugated local Khoikhoi peoples
          1. 1. Miscegenation ensued creating “colored” population
      3. 3.When British take over in 1800s they are totally different than Boers
        1. a. Boers more rural, speak different language
          1. 1. Didn’t have all the benefits of scientific, industrial, urban revolutions
        2. b. Had slaves, British missionaries trying to get rid of slavery
      4. 4. Boers felt pressure and move further inland
        1. a. Come into contact with established Bantus – Zulus and Xhosa
        2. b. British forced at times to come in on side of the Boers
        3. c. Boers try to create to Boer Republics in 1850s
          1. 1. Orange Free State and Transvaal
          2. 2. Ran themselves until diamonds were discovered - 1867
            1. i. Amazingly…British now very interested
            2. ii. Initially Boers won first war in 1881
          3. 3. But…more British moved in when gold discovered in 1885
          4. 4. All out Boer War from 1899-1902
            1. i. Who would control access to the mines?
            2. ii. British eventually win, but feel guilty for treating Boers like garbage
          5. 5. Settler minority then controls native Africans
    7. G. Pacific Tragedies
      1. 1. Introduction
        1. a. Demographic disasters/social disruptions similar to European first contacts
          1. 1. Lived isolated, no immunities to diseases
          2. 2. Vulnerable to outside influences
            1. a. New religions, sexual behaviors, weapons, cheap goods
            2. b. Led to social disintegration and widespread suffering
              1. 1. Agents of change – whalers, merchants, missionaries, administrators
              2. 2. New Zealand/Hawaii – large native populations
            3. c. Solutions
              1. 1. Accommodation – combined some old with new
              2. 2. Revival of traditional beliefs/practices
      2. 2. New Zealand
        1. a. Maori tribes destroyed
          1. 1. Prostitution, alcoholism, superior deadly weapons disrupted warfare
          2. 2. Smallpox, TB, and cold killed them
          3. 3. Changed agriculture – used Western tools/practices to farm
        2. b. Europeans return in 1850s to take over
          1. 1. Dominate farm areas
          2. 2. Maori fight back, but defenseless against weapons/disease
          3. 3. Eventually survived by using British laws/legal system
          4. 4. Became a multiracial society
      3. 3. Hawaii
        1. a. Claimed by British in 1843, but US in 1898
          1. 1. Discovered by Captain James Cook – Spanish
            1. i. Eventually killed over nails in ship
          2. 2. King Kamehameha used Western weapons/methods to take kingdom
        2. b. Women had power until Christian missionaries encouraged conservatism
        3. c. Population declines from ½ million to 80,000
          1. 1. Chinese laborers imported
        4. d. Turned to commercial crops – sugar
          1. 1. Some missionaries turned to capitalism
        5. e. American planters/naval base encouraged US to annex
          1. 1. Protect American lives by posting troops in Honolulu
        6. f. Unique status of Hawaii
          1. 1. not enslaved – racism not as big a deal
          2. 2. arrival of Asian immigrants
          3. 3. colonization finalized
  5. V. Global Connections
    1. A. Industrial Revolution gave motives and means for taking over Asia and Africa
      1. 1. If they didn’t directly control it, the indirectly controlled through threat of military
        1. a. Global order based around helping their industrialized societies
      2. 2. Communication, commercial and transportation networks key
      3. 3. Unprecedented flow of food/materials from Africa, Asia, Latin America to N. America and Europe
        1. a. Existed to support Europe
        2. b. Europe/West provided capital and machines to control local industry
        3. c. Western culture exported – manners, fashions, literary forms, entertainment
    2. B. Europeans believed it was their God-given right
      1. 1. Initially put down revolts with violence
      2. 2. But…western trained locals became leaders of future revolts – nationalists
        1. a. Used language/communication to organize resistance
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