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AP Chemistry Zumdahl 7E Chapter 9 Notes

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1 Chapter 9 - Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 9.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model A. Hybridization 1. The mixing of two or more atomic orbitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies B. Hybrid Orbitals 1. Orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom C. Evidence for hybridization of carbon - Methane and sp3 1. Four bonds of equal length and strength Carbon's isolated configuration Carbon's hybridized configuration 2. Four effective pairs of electrons surround the carbon 3. "Whenever a set of equivalent tetrahedral atomic orbitals is required by an atom, this model assumes that the atom adopts a set of sp3 orbitals; the atom becomes hybridized"

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