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-Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act of 1947 (FIFRA): regulates the manufacture and use of pesticides
-Wilderness Act of 1964: established the national wilderness preservation system
-Water Quality Act of 1965: attempt to reduce non-point source pollution by creating government watch dog under Dept of Heath, Ed and Welfare.
-National Environmental Policy Act of 1969: Environmental Impact statements must be done before any project effecting federal lands is started. Created a council on environmental quality.
-Clean Air Act of 1970: established national primary and secondary air quality standards. Set emission standards for cars, and limits for release of air pollutants.
-Clean Water Act of 1972: set maximum permissible amounts of water pollutants that can be discharged into waterways and created pollutant discharge permits. Goal: To make all water swimmable and fishable.
-Endangered Species Act of 1973: protects threatened and endangered animals in the US, and puts their protection over economic considerations.
-Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974: set maximum contaminant levels for pollutants that may have adverse effects on human health.
-Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA): increased superfund to $8.5 Billion. Shares responsibility for cleanup among potentially responsible parties.
-Toxic Substance Control Act of 1976: EPA- ban or regulate chemicals deemed a risk to health to the environment.
-Resource Conservation & Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976: Controls hazardous waste with a cradle to grave system from storage, treatment, transportation to disposal.
-Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA): requires coal strip mines to reclaim the land
-Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980: Created $1.6 billion superfund designed to identify and clean up abandoned hazardous waste dump sites. Established liability for clean up costs if source could be identified.
-Ocean Dumping Ban Act of 1988: Bans dumping of sewage, sludge and industrial waste into oceans.
-Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA0: Set pesticide limits in food, and all active and inactive ingredients must be screened for estrogenic/endocrine effects.
-Low Level Radioactive Policy Act: all states must have facilities to handle low level radioactive wastes.
-Nuclear Waste Policy Act: US government must develop a high level nuclear waste site by 2015
-Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA)- A 1972 Federal law that provides guidance and federal assistance to voluntary state and local coastal management programs. Goals are for the protection of natural resources and management of land development along coasts.
-Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA)- A 1976 Federal law that outlines procedures concerning the use and preservation of public US lands.
-Food Drug and Cosmetic Act- A federal law passed in 1906 that regulates the sanitary condition and safety of food, drugs and cosmetics. It includes food additives.


International Treaties, Laws and Conventions


-Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES): lists species that cannot be commercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products.
-Madrid protocol: Moratorium on mineral exploration for 50 years in Antarctica
-Kyoto Protocol of 1997: Controlling global warming by setting greenhouse gas emissions targets for developed countries. Not signed by the U.S.
-Montreal Protocol of 1987: A plan to limit and eventually phase out ozone depleting substances (CFC's)
-Earth Summit: held in 1970's, discussed clean water and air. Held in South Africa. The last summit tried to pass a world law by the year 2010 that 15% of our power was to be created by air and solar power. But the Summit was shut down.
-The World Trade Organization (WTO): designed to make international trade more fair and encourage development.
It has been used to subvert national environmental laws. Has the effect of hurting small, local farmers and businesses.
-North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): Trade alliance between U.S., Canada and Mexico


Role of Government in Environmental Affairs Module

?            In 1639 Rhode Island Colony established a closed season on deer hunting
            1. Colonies and later states established similar regulations
            2. Enforcement of regulations not really dealt with until warden systems developed in                                     the 1850's
?            Lacey Act - 1900
           1. Prohibited the transportation of illegally killed game across state lines, curbed trafficking of
plumage and other wildlife products and initiated permit requirements and controls for the introduction of mongooses, starlings and other exotic species
            2. Established federal control over wildlife, broadened the areas of interest, strong deterrent to the unwarranted exploitation of wildlife
?            Migratory Bird Treaty Act (1918)
           1. International treaty  for the protection of whooping cranes, swans, most shorebirds and
wood ducks, bird nests and eggs and establishment of closed seasons for waterfowl, and authorization for the states to adopt and enforce regulations that were not inconsistent with federal provisions
            2. Beginnings of an expanded wildlife refuge system, endangered species management
                        and federal law enforcement
?            Pittman-Robertson Act (1937)
            1. Levied a 10% tax on the sales of sporting arms and ammunition, money returned to
                        the state based on a formula
            2. Through matching program ($1 from state: $3 P-R) state projects approved at the
                        federal level; research, land acquisition and construction
?            Dingell - Johnson Act (1950)
            1. Levied a 10% excise tax on fishing tackle
            2. Similar matching program as P-R and supported research projects, fish hatcheries,
                        land acquisition
?            Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act (1934)
            1. Ensured that fish and wildlife receive equal consideration with other features of
                        water-development programs at the federal level
            2. Massive dislocations of water must consider fish and wildlife values
            3. If project jeopardizes existing wildlife habitat, land acquisition may be required part of
                        the project
?            Wetland Loan Act (1961) - Money loaned to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for wetland acquisition in the face of rapid loss of wetlands
?            Wilderness Act (1964)
            1. Maintain the pristine nature of land where man is a visitor who does not remain
            2. Established the value of pristine wilderness, protected areas from any development,                         habitat preservation, use for research

Current Federal legislation
?            Freedom of Information Act (1966)
?            National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
?            Clean Air Act (1970)
?            Occupational safety and Health Act (1970)
?            Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act  (1972)
?            Endangered Species Act (1973)
?            Safe Drinking Water Act (1974)
?            Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (1976)
?            Toxic Substances Control Act (1976)
?            Clean Water Act (1977)
?            Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act
?            Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (1986)
?            Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (1986)
?            Oil Pollution Act of 1990
?            Pollution Prevention Act (1990)

Pertinent New York State Legislation
?            Where to find the Environmental Conservation Laws
            1. Seasons, bag limits, regulations etc.
            2. Recycling laws
            3. Air pollution standards
            4. Endangered species related laws
Interpretation of the fundamental principles of ecology to further the understanding of why these laws have been instituted

Key Agencies
?            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
?            U.S. Department of the Interior - Fish and Wildlife Service
?            U.S. Agencies whose work impacts on the environment
                        1. Department of Justice
                        2. Department of Transportation
                        3. Federal Emergency Management Agency
                        4. U.S. Geological Survey
                        5. Department of Health and Human Services
                        6. Department of Labor

Wildlife Ecology and Management, William L. Robinson, Eric G. Bolen, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, 1984
Environmental Conservation Law of New York
EPA Guide to Environmental Issues, 1995

Subject X2: 

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