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Chapter 14 - Jacksonian Democracy at Flood Tide

Independent Treasury
Martin Van Buren passed the "Divorce Bill" in 1840 which created an independent treasury that took the government's funds out of the pet banks that Jackson created and put them in vaults in several of the largest cities. This way the funds would be safe from inflation and denied to the state banks as revenue.

Anti-Masonic Party
The Anti-Masonic Party was a third political party that developed during the campaign of 1832 because of the fierce debate between Henry Clay and Andrew Jackson. This party also developed as opposition to the Masons (secret societies). It gained support from evangelical Protestant groups and people who were neglected by Jackson; however, it never took a majority position in elections.

Pet Banks
were state banks; existed in the 1830's; state banks that received federal funds from Jackson. These funds were from the removal of the deposits in the BUS in order to insure of the bank's demise when its charter ran out. These banks then loaned money and printed paper to increase spending, which lead to inflation. Jackson attempts to stop this inflation with the Specie Circular, which lead to the Panic of 1837

Whig Party
The Whig party was a party that formed for those who opposed Jackson's views. It was created in the 1830s and the 1840s. When Jackson was elected, Clay and Calhoun formed a party for those who opposed Democratic views. The first Whig to become president was Harrison in the 1840 election. Whigs thought that Jackson's views were selfish.

Lone Star State
Lone Star State - Texas was first ruled by Spain for over 300 years as a part of Mexico. When Mexico became an independent country in 1821, Texas became a Mexican State and new settlers from the United States were welcomed . The large influx of Americans led to skirmishes with Mexican troops. After a successful war of independence against Mexico, Texans raised the Lone Star flag over their own republic in 1836. Their government was recognized by the United States and several other European countries. In 1845 Texas accepted annexation by the United States and was admitted as the 28th state.

Force Bill
Bill passed by the Congress in 1833. (aka "Bloody Bill" to the southerners) This bill allows the US president to use the Army and the Navy to collect federal tariff duties. (If necessary) It is an attachment to the Nullification Crisis during this time.

Seminole Indians
They lived in Florida. They waged a seven years war against the Americans to try and remain in the east instead of being forcibly removed to the west. They were tricked into a truce where their chief Osceola was captured. Most were moved to Oklahoma while others remained hidden in the everglades.

Divorce Bill
bill proposed by Martin Van Buren; idea: federal money in a separate bank vault so it would not be connected with the ups and downs of the federal economy; barley pass in 1840 by Democrats, then repealed when Whigs came into power a year later.

Bank of United States
The federal bank of US was first created in 1791under Hamilton's economic plan. In 1816, the Bank of US's charter was renewed. Because of the economic recession of the 1810's, the bank suffered great mismanagement until 1822 when Nicholas Biddle, a Philadelphia financier, became its president. Andrew Jackson, in 1831, vetoed the charter act to renew the bank's charter which would expire in 1836. This made the government to store all its funds to the state banks (aka King Andrew's pet banks).

favorite son
The term "favorite son" referred to the Whig candidates of 1836 that were not nationally known. They were only popular in their home states. The Whigs tried to use these men to scatter the vote and force the House of Representatives to choose the President.

Tariff of 1832
tariff passed in 1832; passed to meet Southern demands about previous tariffs; failed because it didn't meet demands but it did do away with the worst of the abominations of 1828 and lowered tariff of 1824 by ten percent; caused Nullification Crisis; was amended by the Compromise Tariff of 1833

Specie Circular Jackson
authorized the U.S. Treasury to issue the Specie Circular in 1836. It was a decree which stated that all public lands must be purchase with gold or silver money, because the BUS was collapsing and the paper money floating around was almost worthless. This decree caused a run on the banks for gold and silver and, in turn, ignited the Panic of 1837.

Slavocracy was the northerners' idea of the south. The idea had to do with Texas joining the union. People from the north thought the southern slavocracy was involved in a conspiracy to bring new slave states to America. "Slavocracy" was what the north used to refer to the south's system of slavery.

Tariff of 1833
This was a compromise bill. It would gradually reduce the tariff of 1832 by10% over an8 year period. It would be a 20-25% tax on dutiable goods. Henry Clay wrote the bill. It ended the nullification crisis when South Carolina accepted the compromise.

Panic of 1837
Nations first economic depression. Banks loaned too much money out for Western expansion and they began to fail one by one. Hardship was acute and widespread and hundreds of banks collapsed. Martin Van Buren (who was president at the time) tried to "divorce" the government from banking altogether. This idea was not highly supported but the Independent Treasury Bill passed congress in 1840. Although the Whigs repealed it the next year, the scheme was reenacted by the democrats in 1846.

Black Hawk
The leader of the Illinois tribes of Indians in the 1830's. When the Indians were uprooted, and forced out of their homes, Black Hawk led the Indians in resisting the move. However, he wasn't powerful enough, because in 1832 they were brutally defeated, and forced to move into Oklahoma.

William Travis
William Travis was a colonel during the Texas Revolution. He fought on the side of the Texans against the Mexicans in 1836 at the Alamo in San Antonio, Texas. Colonel Travis and two hundred Texans were trapped at the Alamo by Santa Anna and his six thousand men. During this siege, all but one of the Texans was killed.

It is a right by the states to declare something issued by the national gov't as constitutional or unconstitutional, (as stated in the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions). Calhoun tried to protect the minority (south), instead of seceding. He tried to settle them down without destroying the nation.

A method used by the government to acquire and establish sovereignty over new territory. Sometimes force is used in annexation, but other times it is done through a legal system, such as a purchase. The United States annexed Texas in 1845 after a consent from Mexico.

Antislavery was a wide spread idea (with most of its supporters being in the New England areas) in the 1800's. the North readily opposed the idea of slavery, because it was abusive and their economy didn't rely on it. But even in the South, in the 1820's, there were numerous antislavery societies. These societies were actually more numerous south of Mason and Dixon's line.

Santa Anna
Santa Anna was a Mexican dictator who in 1835 wiped out all local rights in Texas and started to raise an army to put down the Texans. With six thousand men he swept through Texas till he was finally defeated by Sam Houston's army. He then signed two treaties dealing with the border of Texas and the withdrawal of Mexican troops. (pg. 259-60)

Henry Clay
Who: A National Republican and chief gladiator in the presidential contest of 1832. Threw himself behind the Senate's move to re-charter the bank. Was able to pass a compromise bill that would slowly reduce the 1832 Tariff. When and Where: he came from Kentucky and strongly disliked Jackson. Clay had 50,000 dollars in funds for " life insurance" with the Bank of the United States. Lost the presidential election in 1832:the rich people did not create enough support to elect him president.

Sam Houston
Mexicans and Texans were in conflict over issues such as slavery and immigration. In 1836 the Texans declared their independence from Mexico and made Sam Houston their commander in chief. Santa Anna, the dictator of Mexico, resented this American decree and charged into Texas with Mexican forces. Houston and his troops initially retreated, but eventually they defeated the Mexican army and captured Santa Anna.

John Tyler Ran
as Vice-President to William Henry Harrison in the election of 1840 as a Whig. Harrison was elected, but shortly died, so Tyler became the first Vice-President to take the office of a dead President. The position gave him experience for becoming President later.

John C. Calhoun
In 1834, Calhoun joined with Henry Clay against President Jackson, forming the beginning of the Whig Party. The Whigs along with the Democrats, began the two-system party.

Who: Leader of the Seminole Indians When and Where: The Seminole Indians in Florida were engaged in a bitter guerrilla war that proved to be the costliest Indian conflict.(1835-1842) Fifteen hundred American soldiers lost their lives in the battle. The war ended when the Americans captured Osceola and held him captive. Osceola eventually died in captivity. Why: Split up the Seminole tribe into the Everglades and Oklahoma. (The costliest Indian conflict) One of the many Indian conflicts that furthered westward expansion for the Americans.

Martin Van Buren From New York
Martin Van Buren was Jackson's own choice as his successor. Van Buren became our eighth president in 1836. He was doomed from the start, though, as the people thought he was only "mediocre" and the democrats hated him. He was also left to deal with some very difficult situations, such as a developing depression. Van Buren tried to do his best through such things as the controversial "Divorce Bill," but Martin Van Buren's efforts were futile, as he is not our most memorable president.

Andrew Jackson
He was the seventh president, supported mostly but the West and South (the common people). He had no formal education. His beliefs were simple, but his military background often influenced him. He introduced the spoil's system into American gov't, or rotation in office as he called it. His cabinet was called the "kitchen cabinet" because they were thought of as Jackson's friends, not political office holders.

Stephen Austin
Stephen Austin was an American colonizer and pioneer from Virginia who worked on the independence of Texas. His father, Moses Austin, secured a land grant from Spain, and Stephen later renewed this grant with the independent Mexico. Austin succeeded in bringing over 20,000 Americans to Texas, by 1830. He requested self-government for the territory, and was subsequently thrown into a Mexican prison. In 1835 he returned, and took the command of a Texan army ready to fight for independence. He soon resigned. After Texas became a republic in 1836, Austin worked for its US annexation

William Henry Harrison
1) He was pushed into presidential race. He was a war hero and was not nominated for his ability. 2)1840 Presidential elections. 3) 1st Whig President & 1st President to die in office.

Nicholas Biddle
nicknamed "Czar Nicholas I," he was president of the Bank of the United States. He was known for his massive loans as bribes ("Emperor Nick of the Bribery Bank"). Jackson wanted to weaken the Bank and Biddle, so he gradually stopped making deposits, instead stowing his money in his "pet banks." Jackson destroyed the Bank in 1832.

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