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Chapter 18 - Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy

Walker Tariff
tariff reducing tariff devised by Robert J. Walker during James Polk's presidency; reduce Tariff of 1842 by 7%;1846

Wilmot Proviso
Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. The "Wilmot Proviso", as it became known as, became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.

The Tariff of 1842
A protective tax that was used to create more money for the government. It was reluctantly passed by President John Tyler. The tariff was made to get the government out of a recession

Bear Flag Revolt
a revolt from Fort Devenworth to Santa Fe; 1846; John C. Frement- Americans in California wanted to be independent of Mexican rule; when the war with Mexico begin these Californians revolted and established an independent republic; hoisted short lived California Bear Flag Republic

Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo
Mexico sold the United States all of the southwest for 15 million dollars in agreement that the rights and religion of the Mexican inhabitants of this land would be recognized by the United States government. It was drawn up by Nicholas P. Trist and sent to congress. The anti slavery congressmen passed the treaty and signed it on February 2nd, 1848.

Creole (1841)
an American ship captured by 130 Virginian slaves in the Bahamas. British officials offered refuge to these slaves because there was immense tension between the Americans and British. Other acts of unlawful invasion had occurred because of the British and the possibility of yet another US/ England War was at large.

Aroostook War
It was over the Maine boundary dispute. The British wanted to build a road from Halifax to Quebec. It ran through land already claimed by Maine. Fights started on both sides and they both got their local militia. It could have been a war, but it never proceeded that far.

John C. Fremont
A captain and an explorer who was in California with several dozen well-armed men when the Mexican War broke out. He helped to overthrow the Mexican rule in 1846 by collaborating with Americans who had tried to raise the banner of the California Bear Republic. Fremont helped to take California from the inside.

Joint Resolution
Passed in 1845 by President James K. Polk gained a majority of the two house congress and formally invited Texas to become the 28th state.

Manifest Destiny
The Manifest Destiny was an emotional upsurge of certain beliefs in the US in the 1840's and 1850's. Citizens of the US believed they should spread their democratic government over the entire North America and possibly extend into South America. The campaign of 1844 was included in this new surge. James Polk represented the Democrats while Henry Clay was nominated by the Whigs. The campaign and mudslinging was as harsh as ever and spread all over the continent.

Webster-Ashburton Treaty
a compromise over the Maine boundary; America received more land but England got the Halifax-Quebec route; it patched up the Caroline Affair of 1837

Spot Resolutions
Proposed by Abraham Lincoln in the spring of 1846. After news from president James K. Polk that 16 American service men had been killed or wounded on the Mexican border in American territory, Abraham Lincoln, then a congressman from Illinois, proposed these resolutions to find out exactly on what spot the American soldier's blood had been shed. In Polk's report to congress the President stated that the American soldiers fell on American soil, but they actually fell on disputed territory that Mexico had historical claims to.

Robert Gray
Ship captain who explored the Oregon territory in the late 1700's Discovered the Columbia River in 1792. Named the river after his ship

Zachary Taylor
A major general from 1846-1847 in the Mexican War. Known as "Old Rough and Ready," he defeated the Mexicans in a campaign that took him to Buena Vista in Mexico. The victorious campaign helped pressure the Mexicans into peace.

Nicolas P. Trist
Chief clerk of the State Department, 1848; arranged armistice with Santa Anna; signed Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo; secured Texas and other land as American territories. p.285

Stephen Kearny
American Army officer in the Mexican War. In 1846, he led 1700 troops over the Santa Fe Trail to Santa Fe. He conquered New Mexico and moved his troops over to Los Angeles. He was defeated by the Mexicans at San Pascual in 1846. He was arrested for refusing to carry out orders and sent into Mexico, where he died in 1848

Wilmot, David
A representative from Pennsylvania who introduced an amendment that would make slavery illegal in territory to be gained from Mexico. He proposed the amendment in 1846. This amendment was at the center of the slavery debate and inflamed both sides.

John Tyler
An after-thought Vice President to William Henry Harrison in the election of 1840. He was a democrat but switched over to the Whig Party because he didn't like Andrew Jackson. After Harrison died after a month in office, Tyler took over. Since he was a Democrat in his principle he was against many of the things the Whigs tried to do. He became the first Vice President to take office because of a presidents death.

John Slidell
American and Mexico were on unfriendly terms with each other. The disagreement came over boundaries along Texas and in California. John Slidell was sent to Mexico in 1845 as a minister, He was given instructions to offer $25 million to the Mexicans for California. He was rejected by the Mexicans and they called this offer "insulting". After Mexico refused it lead to the Mexico American war.

Winfield Scott
Old Fuss and Feathers, led American troops in Mexico City during the Mexican American War Mexicans surrendered to him

Lord Ashburton
Lord Ashburton was sent by England to Washington in 1842 to work things out with Secretary Webster over boundary disputes. He was a nonprofessional diplomat that was married to a wealthy American woman. Ashburton and Webster finally compromised on the Maine boundary. They split the area of land and Britain kept the Halifax-Quebec route.

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