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Chapter 31 - Progressivism and the Republican Roosevelt

Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
Ballinger, who was the Secretary of Interior, opened public lands in Wyoming, Montana, and Alaska against Roosevelt's conservation policies. Pinchot, who was the Chief of Forestry, supported former President Roosevelt and demanded that Taft dismiss Ballinger. Taft, who supported Ballinger, dismissed Pinchot on the basis of insubordination. This divided the Republican Party.

Meat Inspection Act
Passed in 1906. It stated that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection. Part of the Progressive reforms, which helped out the consumer.

Pure Food and Drug Act
It was created in 1906 and was designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals. It was made to protect the consumer.

Newlands Act
Congressional response to Theodore Roosevelt in 1902. Washington was to collect money from sales of public lands in western states and use funds for development of irrigation projects

Dollar diplomacy
Taft's foreign policy which replaced "bullets with dollars"; involved investors instead of military. Eventually worked better in Latin America than China.

Payne-Aldrich Act
Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Republican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).

Seventeenth Amendment
The Seventeenth Amendment was adopted in 1913 shortly after "direct primaries" were adopted. U.S. Senators were previously chosen by state legislators who were controlled by political machines. These Senators were known for dealing with mainly business matters in politics. The 17th Amendment stated that Senators were now elected by popular vote from the citizens.

Eighteenth Amendment
Amendment forbids the sale and manufacture of liquor and made it illegal in 1919.

Elkins Act
The Elkins Act of 1903 was an act passed by Congress against the Railroad industries. It was specifically targeted at the use of rebates. It allowed for heavy fining of companies who used rebates and those who accepted them. It is part of the Progressive Reform movement.

Hepburn Act
1906 - This Act was signed by Teddy Roosevelt to give the ICC the right to set rates that would be reasonable. It also extended the jurisdiction of the ICC to cover express, sleeping car, and pipeline companies. It prohibited free passes and rebates. It was the first time in U.S. history that a government agency was given power to establish rates for private companies.

Northern Securities Case
The Northern Securities Company was a holding company in 1902. The company was forced to dissolve after they were challenged by Roosevelt, his first trust-bust.

the process of petitioning a legislature to introduce a bill. It was part of the Populist Party's platform in 1891, along with referendum and recall. These all intended to make the people more responsible for their laws and allow them to make political decisions rather than the legislature.

When citizens vote on laws instead of the state or national governments. The referendum originated as a populous reform in the populist party, but was later picked up by the progressive reform movement.

The people could possibly remove an incompetent politician from office by having a second election.

A second election could be called by the people, and could possibly remove an incompetent politician from office.

Movement in America to begin preserving natural resources and stop the rapid destruction of these resources and land.

Muckrakers- nickname given to young reporters of popular magazines. These magazines spent a lot of money on researching and digging up "muck," hence the name muckrakers. This name was given to them by Pres. Roosevelt- 1906. These investigative journalists were trying to make the public aware of problems that needed fixing.

Robert M. La Follete
Governor of Wisconsin nicknamed " Fighting Bob" who was a progressive Republican leader. His "Wisconsin Idea" was the model for state progressive government. He used the "brain trust", a panel of experts, to help him create effective, efficient government. He was denied the nomination for the Republicans in favor of Theodore Roosevelt.

Hiram Johnson
A progressive reformer of the early 1900s. He was elected the republican governor of California in 1910, and helped to put an end to trusts. He put an end to the power that the Southern Pacific Railroad had over politics.

Charles Evans Hughes
A reformist Republican governor of New York, who had gained fame as an investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust. He later ran against Wilson in the 1916 election.

Upton Sinclair
He was the author of the sensational novel, THE JUNGLE, published in 1906. His intention was to describe the conditions of canning factory workers. Instead, Americans were disgusted by his descriptions of dirty food production. His book influenced consumers to demand safer canned products.

William Howard Taft
In the 1908 election Taft was chosen over William Jennings Bryan to succeed Roosevelt. As president he approached foreign policy by using America's wealth to negotiate politically. He also brought suits against 90 trusts during his administration. Due to his lack of political skills, he helped divide the Republican Party.

Henry Demarest Lloyd
He wrote the book "Wealth Against Commonwealth" in 1894. It was part of the progressive movement and the book's purpose was to show the wrong in the monopoly of the Standard Oil Company.

Jacob Riis
Jacob Riss was a reporter for the New York Sun. He was a photo journalist. His book HOW THE OTHER HALF LIVES detailed life in the slums. He was trying to bring attention to the situation of the poor to bring about some sort of change.

Ida Tarbell
Ida Tarbell was a "Muckraker" who wrote in the magazine McClure's (1921). As a younger woman, in 1904, Tarbell made her reputation by publishing the history of the Standard Oil Company, the "Mother of Trusts."

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