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Chapter 33 - The War to End Wars

Food Administration
An administration created to feed wartime America and its allies. Herbert Hoover, a Quaker-humanitarian, was chosen as the leader, mostly because of his already existent title of "hero" that he acquired leading a massive charitable drive to feed the starving people of war-racked Belgium. This was the most successful of the wartime administrations.

These communists organized a revolution in Russia to overthrow the tsar. The communist revolution caused Russia to pull out of WWI.

The nickname given to regular soldiers in World War I. They were part of the American Legion that was lobbying for veteran's benefits. They wanted to receive their "dough" to make up for the wages that they lost when they joined the military.

Big Four
The "Big Four" refers to the four countries that were allied together in WWI. The countries were the U.S. represented by President Wilson, England represented by David Lloyd George, France represented by Georges Clemenceau, and Italy represented by Vittorio Orlando.

During World War I, senators William Borah of Idaho and Hiram Johnson of California, led a group of people who were against the United States joining the League of Nations. Also known as "the Battalion of Death". They were extreme isolationists and were totally against the U.S. joining the League of Nations.

Treaty of Versailles
This treaty was created to solve problems made by World War I. Germany was forced to accept the treaty. It was composed of only four of the original points made by President Woodrow Wilson. The treaty punished Germany and did nothing to stop the threat of future wars. It maintained the pre-war power structure.

Nineteenth Amendment
This amendment gave women suffrage in 1920. Women were guaranteed the right to vote after a century of conflicts.

Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.

Espionage and Sedition Acts
Espionage Act of 1917; Sedition Act of 1918; reflected current fear about Germans and antiwar Americans; Among the 1,900 prosecuted under these laws were antiwar Socialists and members of the radical union Industrial Workers of the World; were enacted during WWI to keep Americans united in favor of the war effort.

Industrial Workers of the World
Also known as "Wobblies," a more radical labor organization that was against war.

War Industries Board
President Wilson appointed Bernard Baruch to head the board in March of 1918 during WWI--intended to restore economic order- to make sure we were producing enough at home and abroad--never had more than feeble formal powers--was disbanded a few days after the armistice.

Collective security
Described what the League of Nations should do. It said that the League of Nations was supposed to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all countries.

After a long reign of high morality, outrageous idealism, and "bothersome do-goodism", people longed for the "normalcy" of the old America, and were ready to accept a lower quality president who would not force them to be so involved. Harding coined the phrase a "return to normalcy".

Zimmerman note
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a German foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.

Fourteen Points
The Fourteen Points were introduced by Wilson in 1918. It was Wilson's peace plan. Each of the points were designed to prevent future wars. He compromised each point at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The only point which remained was the 14th (League of Nations). Each one was appealing to a specific group in the war and each one held a specific purpose.

League of Nations
In 1919, after the war, Wilson proposed the League in the 14th point of his peace plan. He envisioned it as an Assembly with seats for all nations and a special council for the great powers. The US voted not to join the League because in doing so, it would have taken away our self-determination, and Congress could not decide whether to go to war or not.

Marshal Foch
The quiet Frenchman who became the supreme commander of the Allied forces during Germany's attack on the Western front in World War I; his axiom was, "To make war is to attack."

Henry Cabot Lodge
Lodge was an outspoken senator from Massachusetts. He came from a distinguished lineage that dated back to the colonial times. He introduced the Literacy Test bill in 1896 to be taken by immigrants, but it was vetoed by Cleveland. The bill however was passed and enacted in 1917. Lodge also led a group of Republicans against the League of Nations. Lodge proposed amendments to the League Covenant but Wilson would not accept. We did not join the League.

Warren G. Harding
He was easygoing and kind, and therefore one of the best liked men of his time. As a president, however, he had a weak. He won the 1920 election but he was unable to detect moral wrongs in his associates. He appointed "great minds" to office because he knew he lacked in intelligence, but a few of the men he appointed were morally lacking. He was called an "amiable boob,". He died in 1923 from a stroke.

James M. Cox
He was the democrat nominee chosen to run for the presidency against Harding in the 1920 election. His vice-presidential running mate was Franklin Roosevelt.

The idea that all people can have independence and make up their own government. This was one of Wilson's fourteen points.

Eugene V. Debs
Socialist, Eugene V. Debs, was accused of espionage and sent to a federal penitentiary for ten years. All this came about because of a speech that he made in Columbus, Ohio at an anti- war rally. Despite his imprisonment he ran for presidency in 1920. Although he didn't win, he had many votes; in fact he had the most that any candidate of the Socialist party had ever had.

Bernard Baruch
Bernard Baruch was a stock speculator appointed by Wilson to head the War Industries Board. The Board had only formal powers and was disbanded. He was later a United States delegate for the U.N. during the Cold War.

George Creel
Journalist who was responsible for selling America on WWI and was head of the Committee on Public Information. He was also responsible for selling the world on Wilsonian war aims.

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