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Themes in U.S. History
Different Economical classes within families
John Smith and Pocahontas
After 2nd Anglo-Powhatan War – Whites and Indians had to be separated – leads to the establishment of Reservations
Primogeniture and unemployment (relationships among groups); Inner marriage with Native Americans in order to trade; destruction of Native Americans and the inability to live in peace.
Defeat of Spanish Armada boasts American pride
Patriotism and Loyalty
Same rights as Englishmen in VA and England per Virginia Company charter
England is master of the seas - adds to colonist confidence and sense of strength; new spirit of self confidence after the defeat of the Spanish Armada. Charter of the Virginia Company; South - slavery and plantation agriculture (regional difference).
Clashes between Indians (Catholics) and Virginian Settlers (Protestants)
John Rolfe marriage to Pocahontas – 1st interracial
Anglo-Powhatan wars kill elders
Jamestown war with N.A. leads to separation from whites; Barbados slave code (p. 360) adopted by Carolina
Spanish in Santa Fe 1610, French at Quebec 1608, English at Jamestown 1607
England pop. 3 mil. in 1550 4 mil. in 1600
Anglo-Powhatan Wars drive out Indians
Decimation of NA by disease, increase in English population that leads to New World voyages
Indians barter-and-exchange network European commerce
Economic Depression late 1500’s
Firearms traded with Native Americans - this increases NA on NA warfare and competition for hunting grounds. Tobacco (poor man's crop) in Virginia and Maryland ruins the soil, cash crop.
Tobacco planted throughout Jamestown
Tobacco ruins the soil, whites destroy native peoples, land is cleared and the landscape is changed.
Boom of slaves in colonies and West Indies
Tobacco and rice is traded with Europe. African slaves are brought to the south by way of Barbados.
Politics and Citizenship
Virginia - Charter guarantees English rights in the colonies; establish the House of Burgesses; NA denied rights
Indians were pushed from old territories; some were completely destroyed by European diseases and raids
Act of Toleration in Maryland – 1649 – toleration to all Christians
English Protestant Reformation
Protestants and Catholics
Religious disagreement beginning with Henry VIII separates Catholics and Protestants in England. Maryland founded as a Catholic colony but is surrounded by Protestants. Freedom of worship for Christians only in the Act of Toleration.
Slavery and Its Legacies in North America
Indians sold into slavery
1619- 20 Africans sold into tobacco planting slavery in VA
1650 – 300 black slaves in VA
1700 – Caribbean, African slaves outnumbered whites 4:1 due to sugar
1696 – Barbados slave code est. in the Carolinas
Native Americans - disease, and disposability; tobacco plantation style promotes slave labor and plans seeds of slavery. Indentured servants used in Maryland to harvest tobacco. Slavery is in the West Indies first on Sugar plantations. Sugar is a wealthy man's crop and the wealthy own huge plantations. Some will come to Carolina and bring slaves and slave trade with them.
War and Diplomacy
English defeat Spanish Armada
1st Anglo-Powhatan War – treaty 1614 – Pocahontas marries John Rolfe
2nd Anglo-Powhatan War – 1644-1646 – treaty drove out Indians
Raids on Indians in coastal Carolinas in 1710 annihilated the pop.
War with Native Americans (1 st and 2nd Powhatan Wars). Both lead to movement of Native Americans from tribal lands and the eventual permanent separation through reservations.