HCHS Kids: LET ME KNOW IF YOU TAKE MY NOTES
Themes in U.S. History
Louis Sullivan contributed to the development of the skyscraper. City limits were extended outward by electric trolleys. People were attracted to the cities by amenities such as electricity, indoor plumbing, and telephones.
During this time period, public education and the idea of tax-supported elementary schools and high schools were gathering strength.
Teacher-training schools, called "normal schools", experienced great expansion after the Civil War.
The New Immigration in the 1880s and 1890s brought new strength to the private Catholic parochial schools, which were fast becoming a major part of the nation's educational structure.
Public schools excluded millions of adults. Crowded cities generally proved to be better educational facilities than the old one-room rural schoolhouses.
Liquor consumption had increased in the days of the Civil War and had continued to flourish afterwards.
The National Prohibition Party was formed in 1869. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union was formed in 1874 by militant women.
The Anti-Saloon League was sweeping new states into prohibiting alcohol, and in 1919, the national prohibition amendment (18th) was passed.
A new generation of urban revivalists stepped into this spreading moral vacuum. Dwight Lyman Moody, a Protestant evangelist, proclaimed a gospel of kindness and forgiveness. He contributed to adapting the old-time religion to the facts of city life. The Moody Bible Institute was founded in Chicago in 1889 to carry out his work.
Roman Catholic and Jewish faiths were gaining enormous strength from the New Immigration.
By 1890, there were over 150 religious denominations in the United States.
The Church of Christ, Scientist was founded in 1879 by Mary Baker Eddy who preached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness.
Published in 1859 by Charles Darwin, On the Origin of the Species stated that humans had slowly evolved from lower forms of life.
The theory of evolution cast serious doubt on the idea of religion. Conservatives stood firmly in their beliefs of God and religion, while Modernists flatly refused to accept the Bible in its entirety.
Slavery and Its Legacies in North America
The South lagged far behind other regions in public education, and African-Americans suffered the most.
The leading champion of black education was ex-slave Booker T. Washington. He taught in 1881 at the black normal and industrial school at Tuskegee, Alabama. His self-help approach to solving the nation's racial problems was labeled "accommodationist" because it stopped short of directly challenging white supremacy. Washington avoided the issue of social equality.
George Washington Carver taught and researched at Tuskegee Institute in 1896. He became an internationally famous agricultural chemist.
Black leaders, including Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois, attacked Booker T. Washington because Washington condemned the black race to manual labor and perpetual inferiority. Du Bois helped to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910.
War and Diplomacy