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HELP!!! Eisenhower vs. Truman foreign policy

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9349909l's picture
Joined: Apr 2007
HELP!!! Eisenhower vs. Truman foreign policy

Can someone please give me some exaples of their foreign policies and the effectiveness of each approach? Thanks.

FeeFee's picture
Joined: Apr 2007

These are just tidbits from the last essay I wrote that I thought might be helpful. Honestly, Answers.com is your friend.

-During the U-2 incident, Russia shot down an American spy plane. The President lied and denied that the plane was spying. The pilot who was supposed to commit suicide decided against this plan (who wouldn't?) and was blatant physical evidence that the US had, in fact, been spying. This ruined American relations with the Soviets.
-. Further American intervention in Iran, which Americans suspected was being influenced by the Kremlin, allowed the CIA to instill Mohammen Reza Pahlevi as a dictator. The act secured Iranian oil for the West but created a flood of bitter resentment. (I think I may have copied this verbatim from American Pageant)

-President Truman’s Marshall Plan revived the economy of postwar Europe, and the $12.5 billion made the U.S. emerge as a capitalist savior.
-Dropping the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nakasaki killed and maimed millions of innocent civilians. Japan still did not surrender; it was only when America promised that the emperor would not be hurt that the U.S. emerged victorious.
-At a much-criticized meeting that took place on April 23, Truman reprimanded Molotov for not carrying out the Yalta accord on Poland. When the Soviet minister attempted a response, Truman interrupted and continued to attack the greatly offended Soviet leader, who stated, “I have never been talked to like that in my life.”
-On April 4, 1949, America signed the North Atlantic Treaty, putting Cold War fears of growing Soviet power on paper. The treaty stated that any attack against European or North American participants would be viewed as an attack against them all. Though the nation threatened against a Soviet attack, America was once again entangled in a treaty alliance.
-After the Soviet blockade of Berlin, British and American forces operated a large-scale airlift program to sustain the 2.5 million civilians in the Western portion of the city. More than a quarter of a million flights, landing every two to three minutes every hour of the day, provided the city with food and coal, as well as other basic needs. After grueling manpower and often-dangerous conditions, the blockade was lifted on May 12, 1949.
-Furthermore, the Marshall Plan, proposed by George Marshall in 1947, provided nearly $13 billion in grants and loans to seventeen countries, reviving economies and stabilizing political structures. The plan transformed America into a benevolent benefactor and helped spark good feelings towards capitalism throughout the world.

There. The last part on Truman is basically my entire essay on him that I (lucky for you) had saved on my computer. Good luck, and if I find anything else, I'll edit this post.

Azntoxicwaste's picture
Joined: Sep 2006

FeeFee had many great points but he forgot some parts about both presidents

-He believed in Massive Retaliation (also called New Look)- includes buildup of airforce and nuclear program and reducing the army and navy. When the situation called, he will have to attempt to make the other country back down or we have to back down (if neither backs down, there will be atomic diplomacy). It his administration, he reduced army by 500,000, Navy by 100,000 and increased air force by 30,000 (check me on the air force and navy one). He was able to save $1 billion in the budget by doing that. This failed after the Hungarian Revolt where the Soviets just send in the tanks and crushed it. Eisenhower couldn't do anything because he didn't want to risk atomic warfare.
-The operation into Iran was called "Operation Ajax" in which he overthrew Pahlevi and put the Shah back into power. This is part of the reason Iran still hates us today.
-When Eisenhower campaigned for the presidency, he advocated the policy of Rollback instead of Containment. This includes taking countries already in the communist sphere of influence back. But Eisenhower did not really follow Rollback (as in case with Korea), he followed containment instead.
-Eisenhower also declared the Eisenhower Doctrine for the Middle East (it's like the Marshall Plan for the Middle East)
-Eisenhower saw the end of the Korean war. He actually flew to Korea right after he became president to survey the situation. He then send the squadron that was infamous for dropping the nuclear bombs on Japan to Japan (hint the irony). He did this to hint to the Chinese and North Koreans that he might use nukes (but in fact he only send the planes but not the nukes). This act made the Chinese and North Koreans more willing to compromise.
-Eisenhower did preside over a bit of detente with the Geneva Spirit- where Eisenhower proposed the open sky policy and reduction of nuclear weapons. Even though Khruschev rejected it, it was viewed as a bit of cool off of tensions. The detente was furthered when Khruschev denounced Stalin during his annual address to Communist Congress (destalinization).
-Eisenhower was also responsible for much of the situation with Cuba and Fidel Castro. Castro was essentially pushed into the Soviet Camp because of Eisenhower. When Castro came to the US for a visit, Eisenhower sent Nixon to meet with him. Nixon essentially yelled at Castro and told him we'll invade you if you nationalize foreign companies in Cuba. Eisenhower also refused to recognize the regime in Cuba after Castro took over.
-Eisenhower also screwed up in the case of Egypt. Nasser wanted to built a massive dam on the Suez but he needed money and Eisenhower at first offered him loans by the US. But after Eisenhower found out Nasser was buying weapons from Czechslovakia (communist), he canceled the loans. Then Nasser got loans from the USSR and nationalized the Suez Canal which caused an invasion of Egypt by Israel and France. Eisenhower realized that he screwed up and didn't want to make things worse so he refused to sent supplies to Israel and France which forced them to withdraw their troops.

-Remeber the alterior motives for using the A-bomb on Japan ("atomic diplomacy". It was often considered the first shot of the Cold War.
-Truman's involvement in Korea and his conflict with his commander in chief MacArthur (which led to the firing of MacArthur). Truman was greatly criticized for the war in Korea.
-It was also during the Truman administration that China fell to Communism. Truman argued it wasn't a big deal since containment was most important in Europe. He also said that it was Chiang Kia-Shek's fault since US send him over $2 billion in aid in return for promise to reform but he never did. The money was often taken by leading officials in that administration (and ironically many of them bought land in New York with that money).
-In 1951 when Truman found out USSR had A-bomb, He asked the National Security Council to advice him on what to do. THeir advice was called NSC-68. It suggested him to built up the arm forces to 3.5 million and have an annual budget of $50 billion for the armed forces.

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