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Chapter 8: Psychology: Themes and Variations, Canadian Edition

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Psychological research Operational definition: describes the operation that will be used to measure or control a variable Aim of good scientific research is a) clarity and precision and b) relative intolerance of error Peer-reviewed articles have strict guidelines for publishing Scientific theories are unfinished; studies give credibility to the claim, not prove it Multiple studies decrease the likelihood of statistical anomaly Research methods Experimentation: manipulation of an independent variable under carefully controlled conditions Pros: control; can observe cause-and-effect Cons: can be artificial; ethical concerns Direct observation: observers watch and record behaviour as objectively and precisely as possible with no/minimal interference Pros: minimizes artificiality

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