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Chapter 36 - The Great Depression and the New Deal

Congress of Industrial Organizations
Also known as the CIO, this labor union formed in the ranks of the AFL. It consisted of unskilled workers. The AFL got scared of their influence on workers and suspended all members of the CIO. In 1938 it broke with the AF of L. By 1940 it had 4 million members.

Liberty League
The Liberty League consisted of the conservatives that opposed the New Deal introduced by FDR. Their common opinion was that FDR was pushing the United States too close to socialism. They saw the New Deal as being more apt to hurt United States economics than to help it. (Herbert Hoover and General Motors)

Twentieth and Twenty-first Amendments
The Twentieth Amendment changed the calendar of Congressional sessions and the date of the presidential inauguration (January 20th). In short, it shortened the length of lame duck periods for the presidency. The Twenty-first Amendment to the Constitution ended prohibition and allowed the distribution and drinking of alcoholic beverages to commence once again.

Court-packing scheme
Roosevelt tried to put an extra justice on the Supreme Court for every justice over 70 years old who wouldn't retire. These justices would be supporters of Roosevelt and there would be a maximum of 15 judges. The plan failed. Congress would not accept.

National Recovery Act
During the Great Depression, this act was created in 1933 as a helping hand for industry, labor, and the unemployed. It granted labor additional benefits and guaranteed the right to organize through representatives of their own choosing. It was a part of Franklin D. Roosevelt's new plan, but was later declared unconstitutional. Symbol was the "Blue Eagle"

Tennessee Valley Authority
First Government owned corporation. Started to create jobs and build dams in the Tennessee River Valley to supply electricity to poorer areas after the depression.

Social Security Act of 1935
It created a federal insurance program based on the automatic collection of taxes from employees and employers throughout people's working careers. They would receive this money in a monthly pension when they reached the age of 65. The unemployed, disabled, and mothers with dependent children would also receive this money.

Wagner Act
Same as the National Labor Relations Act (1935) and set up the National Labor Relations Board and reasserted the right of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively.

National Labor Relation Board
Created by the National Labor Relations Act, also known as the Wagner Act it was created in the 1930's by congressman Wagner who was sympathetic to labor unions. The National Labor Relation Board was an administrative board that gave laborers the rights of self-organization and collective bargaining.

The three R's
Roosevelt's New Deal programs aimed at the three R's- relief, recovery, and reform. Roosevelt's plan was announced on March 4, 1933 to lift the burden of the Great Depression.

Glass-Steagall Act
In 1933, this act allowed the banks to reopen and it gave the president the power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange.

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
The CCC was created by the Unemployment Relief Act of 1933. It provided employment in government camps for 3 million uniformed single, young men during the Great Depression. The work they were involved in included reforestation, fire fighting, flood control, and swamp drainage.

Works Progress Administration
Congress created this in 1935 as an agency that gave jobs to people who needed them. They worked on bridges, roads, and buildings. They spent 11 billion dollars and gave almost 9 million people jobs. It was one of the New Deal Agencies.

New Deal
After Franklin Roosevelt was inaugurated in 1933, he decided the U.S. must improve economically to recover from the Great Depression. His policy, the New Deal, focused on relief, recovery, and reform. Short term goals were relief and immediate recovery. Permanent recovery and reform were done by long-range goals. Programs were established to improve unemployment, regulate minimum wage, and reform many other social issues.

Brain Trusts)
Small group of reform minded intellectuals, mainly young college professors. Considered much of the New Deal legislation and worked as a kitchen cabinet for Franklin Roosevelt.

George W. Norris
He was a Senator from Nebraska, whose steadfast vision and zeal helped an act creating the Tennessee Valley Authority to be passed in 1933.

John L. Lewis
John L. Lewis was the leader of the United Mine Workers. He also formed the CIO (Committee for Industrial Organization). He led a "sit-down" strike on General Motors at Flint, Michigan in 1936. Unionists from the Republic Steel Co. wanted to join the CIO, and a fight broke out in 1937 called the

Memorial Day Massacre.
Lewis is responsible for the 1938 Fair Labor Standards Acts (Wages and Hour Bill) which set minimum wage, overtime pay for work over 40 hours in one week, and kids under age 16 could not work.

Alfred M. Landon
Alfred M. Landon was the republican candidate in 1936. This honest and wealthy man from Kansas lost greatly to the Democrat Franklin Roosevelt. He had stressed balancing the budget.

A plan to help farmers injured from low prices and over-production. From 1909-1914, farms had enjoyed a period of prosperity. Parity was the price placed on a product that gave it the same value, in buying power, that it had from 1909-1914. The AAA paid farmers to reduce production. The payment for this came from taxes gotten from the makers of expensive farm equipment.

Frances Perkins
First woman appointed to a cabinet position. Appointed by FDR, she became Secretary of Labor. She received a lot of undeserved criticism from male politicians and businessmen.

Father Coughlin
Anti-New Deal Catholic Priest; began broadcasting in 1930; called the "microphone messiah"; slogan was "Social Justice"; silenced in 1942 when his broadcasts became too radical.

Huey Long
Nickname "Kingfish"; Senator of Louisiana. He pushed his "Share Our Wealth" program, which would make "Every Man a King". Long planned to run against FDR in the 1936 elections, but he was assassinated.

Francis Townshend
Townshend was a retired physician who developed a plan in which the government would give monetary resources to senior citizens ages sixty and over. This plan was a type of pension for older Americans. He had a lot of followers. This people thought FDR wasn't doing enough.

Harold Ickes
"Honest Harold"; Secretary of the interior; became head of the Public Works Administration (PWA); dealt with industrial recovery and unemployment relief by creating jobs (over thirty-four thousand project jobs for workers). His determination to prevent waste prevented maximum relief.

Franklin D. Roosevelt
--- governor of NY -- 5th cousin to Theodore Roosevelt --- wealthy family -- went to Harvard -- served as secretary of the navy -- was suave and conciliatory -- handicapped --came up with New Deal --- elected as a democrat President in 1932 --elected 4 times (only one to do so) --dealt with Great Depression and WWI

Eleanor Roosevelt
Wife of Franklin Roosevelt; she traveled everywhere with him on behalf of all his campaigns; she became the most active First Lady in history. She fought for the rights of all Americans.

Harry Hopkins
The head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA). A friend and advisor to President FDR. He was very involved in reforms in the Great Depression and in the 30's and 40's in such issues as unemployment and mortgages.

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