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Chapter 37 - Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Shadow of War

America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.

A law passed in March of 1941 by sweeping majorities in both houses of Congress. This law said that the U.S. would lend or lease weapons to overseas countries and victims of aggression who would in turn finish the job of the fighting, and keep the war overseas from the U.S.

Atlantic Charter
This was created by Winston Churchill and President Franklin D. Roosevelt in a secret conference. It outlined the hopes of the democracies and their intentions for improvements after World War II.

Nye Committee
The Nye Committee investigated arms manufacturers and bankers of World War I. Claimed they had caused America's entry into WWI. Public opinion pushed Congress to pass the Neutrality Acts to keep us out of WWII.

Neutrality Acts
Congress made an effort to legislate the nation out of war. The Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937 stipulated that when the president proclaimed the existence of a foreign war certain restrictions would automatically go into effect. No American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, or sell or transport munitions to a belligerent nation, or make loans to a belligerent.

Hitler-Stalin Nonaggression Pact
This pact was signed by Hitler and Stalin on August 23, 1939. It allowed Hitler to attack Poland without fear of an attack from Russia. This pact helped spur the start of World War II.

"cash and carry"
Only way that Europe could buy American war materials in World War II. They would have to transport the munitions in their own ships and they could only purchase the munitions with cash.

"Phony war"
During World War II Hitler removed his forces from Poland to focus his efforts in France and Britain. All of Europe fell rather silent at the shock of Hitler's move. This silence and period of inactivity in Europe came to an end when Hitler again moved his forces, and attacked the weaker Norway and Denmark. The period of silence in Europe was known as the phony war.

Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act
(1934) The Act was designed to raise American exports and was aimed at both relief and recovery. Led by Cordell Hull, it helped reverse the high-tariff policy.

Nazi Party
The Nazi Party was established in Germany with much of the same beliefs as the Fascists. Nazis believed that the state is more important than the individual and that there should be a strong central government with absolute power. Adolph Hitler is known for leading the Nazi Party. Hitler is also credited with taking the Fascist beliefs a step further and adding the racism into the beliefs. Nazis believed that white people with blonde hair and blue eyes made up a superior race of humans that would one day rule the world.

Rome-Berlin Axis
In 1936 Hitler and Mussolini allied together in the Rome-Berlin Axis. They were both allied with Japan. They fought against the Allies in World War II.

The opposition of the involvement of a country in international alliances, agreements, etc. The U.S. remained isolated in the 1920's because of the disillusionment in WWI. This isolationist sentiment was prevalent during WWII.

Good Neighbor Policy
This was established by Herbert Hoover to create good relations with Latin America. It took much of the American military out of these countries. It also nullified the Roosevelt Corollary.

Winston Churchill
He was the prime minister of England during World War II. He was known as the bull-dog jawed orator who gave his people the nerve to fight off the air bombings occurring in their cities. He was in favor of the Eight-point Atlantic Charter and he was involved in the first conference. He was also one of the Big Three.

Charles Lindbergh
In 1927, he was the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean in his plane, the Spirit of Saint Louis. He later became an ambassador of goodwill for the United States.

Wendle Willkie
Republican presidential candidate versus Roosevelt in the election of 1940. He lost, but put up a good "race."

a recognition of two countries or institutions of the validity of licenses or privileges granted by the other. Part of the New Deal trade policy was to reduce tariffs to encourage trade. Idea was that if we reduce tariffs other countries will reduce tariffs on us.

Type of government where the government has complete control and the people are powerless.

Urenburg Trials
After WWII, the Allied forces agreed that Nazism had to be cut out of Germany. They tried twenty-two Nazi war criminals in Nuremberg, Germany in 1945-1946. Twelve of the tried were hung, and seven sent to jail.

Cordell Hull
Secretary of State during FDR's presidency; believed in reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers, as well as a low tariff; led to passage of the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934; also believed in Good Neighborism.

Joseph Stalin
Harsh and strict Communist dictator of Russia. One of the three big powers during WWII along with Roosevelt from the US and Churchill from Great Britain. Constantly asked for a western front to be established to relieve USSR during WWII.

Benito Mussolini
The Facist dictator of Italy. He sought to create a new empire, much like the Roman one. He became an ally with Adolf Hitler in the Rome-Berlin Axis, and led his forces against the Allied powers in WWII. He was overthrown and beheaded in 1943, after the fall of Sicily during the war.

Francisco Franco
With the help of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini, Franco overthrew the Loyalist regime and became the dictator of Spain in the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939.

Adolf Hitler
A very crude leader that took advantage of a disillusioned and depression-stricken nation. After the Treaty of Versailles blamed Germany for WWI, Hitler lead the nation into WWII under the "big lie." He was a manipulative and feared dictator that vented his anger on the Jewish Nation.

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