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Chapter?23: The Transformation of Europe Chapter Outline The fragmentation of western Christendom The Protestant Reformation Martin Luther (1483-1546) attacked the sale of indulgences, 1517 Attacked corruption in the Roman Catholic Church; called for reform Argument reproduced with printing presses and widely read Enthusiastic popular response from lay Christians, princes, and many cities By mid-sixteenth century, half the German people adopted Lutheran Christianity Reform spread outside Germany Protestant movements popular in Swiss cities, Low Countries English Reformation sparked by King Henry VIII's desire for divorce John Calvin, French convert to Protestantism Organized model Protestant community in Geneva in the 1530s

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