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AP Bio Review

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AP BIOLOGY SEMESTER 2 REVIEW UNIT 7 CONTINUED: ANIMAL FORM & FUNCTION Cell Communication Reception ? signal molecule binds to receptor protein in cell membranes causing it to change shape G protein coupled receptor Transduction = cascade of molecules activates relaying signal within cell Signal transduction pathway (ex. G-protein, tyrosine-kinase receptors, ion channel receptors) Phosphorylation cascades Secondary messenger system (ex. Cyclic AMP, Ca2+ ions, DAG, IP3) Response Transcription factors turn genes on or off Cellular activity activate enzymes, open cell membrane channels, apoptosis Scaffolding proteins Endocrine System (table page 961) Homeostasis Blood sugar regulation, blood calcium regulation Negative feedback, positive feedback Neurosecretory cells

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