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AP Chemistry Zumdahl 7E Chapter 10 Notes

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1 Chapter 10 - Liquids and Solids 10.1 Intermolecular Forces A. Dipole-Dipole Forces 1. Attraction between molecules with dipole moments a. Maximizes (+) ----- ( - ) interactions b. Minimizes (+) ----- ( + ) and (-) ----- ( - ) interactions 2. About 1% of strength of ionic bonds a. Unimportant in gas phase due to distance between molecules B. Hydrogen Bonding 1. Special dipole-dipole attraction a. Hydrogen covalently bonded to highly electronegative elements (N, O, F) has a higher than normal d+ charge 2. Bond strength is higher than other dipole-dipole attractions 3. Important in the bonding of molecules such as water and DNA C. London Dispersion Forces 1. Instantaneous dipoles a. Random movement of electrons can create a momentary

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