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Communities and Biomes

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Chapter 3 Communities and Biomes Communities Life in a Community Limiting factor: any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or distribution of organisms. Tolerance: the ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental factors Succession: Changes over Time Succession: the orderly, natural changes and species replacements that take place in the communities of an ecosystem Succession occurs in stages. At each stage, different species of plants and animals may be present. Primary succession: the colonization of barren land by communities of organisms The first species to take hold in an area like this are called pioneer species.

Biome Characteristics

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Tropical forest Within 23 N/S Canopy 4% of land space, but 20% photosynthesis of the Earth most diverse species on Earth Tall trees- Tropical dry forests Tropical deciduous forests Tropical rain forests Dim floor Epiphytes cover trees Savannas Tropic/subtropic grass land Rainy/dry seasons Scattered trees Mammals move deserts 23 N/S Low/unpredictable rains Hot and cold CAM photosynthesis plants Water storage adaptation Draught-resistant plants chaparral Along coastlines in midlatitudes Mild/rainy winter Hot/dry summer Dense, spiny evergreen shrubs Maintained by periodic fire Temperate grass land NE USA etc Deep and rich soil in nutrition Low total annual rain Inhospitable for forest Maintained by fire/drought/grazing Temperate deciduous forests
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