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Mineral acids

AP Chemistry Zumdahl 7E Chapter 14 Notes

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1 Chapter 14 - Acids and Bases 14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases A. Arrhenius Model 1. Acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions 2. Bases produce hydroxide ions in aqueous solutions B. Bronsted-Lowry Model 1. Acids are proton donors 2. Bases are proton acceptors 3. H3O+ is called the hydronium ion C. Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs 1. A conjugate base is what remains after an acid has donated a proton a. Cl- is the conjugate base of HCl 2. A conjugate acid is what is formed when a base accepts a proton base acid acid base 3. HCl is a stronger base than H3O+ (H+) so the equilibrium lies far to the right D. Acid Dissociation Constant 1. ][ ]][[ HCl ClHKa -+ = a. water is not included because, in dilute solution, the concentration of
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