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Chapter 2- Early Civilizations

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Civilizations First developed in Mesopotamia All civilizations have four distinct features Economic surplus Formal governments Writing Urban centers Often had men in a place of power over women Mesopotamia The civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys Had bronze and iron by 4000 BCE Sumer Sumerians joined Mesopotamia in 4000 BCE Developed a cuneiform system by 3500 BCE First known case of writing Founded astronomy Created a numbering system Developed complex religious rituals Built ziggurats Believed in multiple gods Prayers and offerings Believed in afterlife Original version of hell Developed city-states ruled by a king Government regulated religion, provided justice

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