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Chapter 8

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Chapter 8 African Civilizations and the Spread of Islam I. Introduction A. Mansa Musa ? crossed Sahara on hajj 1. wealth symbolized potential of Africa B. Sub-sahara never totally isolated 1. But?for periods contact was difficult and intermittent C. Changes came from 1. Arrival of Muhammad followers a. Commercial and military attributes b. changed by Islam, but retained individuality c. African culture not united d. provided major external contact between sub-Saharan Africa and world D. State building 1. Mali, Songhay ? created more from military power than ethnic/cultural unity 2. Merchant city states on west/East coast 3. Portugese in 15th century brought Africans into world economy more 4. Bantu migration continued

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