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AP Chemistry Zumdahl 7E Chapter 8 Notes

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AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy (greater stability) than separated ions B. Coulomb's Law 1. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?= - r QQ E nmJx 21191031.2 a. E = energy in joules b. Q1 and Q2 are numerical ion charges c. r = distance between ion center in nanometers d. negative sign indicates an attractive force C. Bond Length (covalent) 1. Distance at which the system energy is at a minimum 2. Forces at work a. Attractive forces (proton - electron) b. Repulsive forces (electron - electron, proton - proton) 3. Energy is given off (bond energy) when two atoms achieve greater stability together than apart

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