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Nuclear physics

Atomic Structure

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Atomic Structure The discovery of atoms began with Democritus, a Greek philosopher, who was the first person to suggest that atoms exist. However Democritus made the false claim that atoms were indestructible which was proven wrong with the development of the atomic bomb (nuclear power), additionally he did not support his idea with scientific evidence or explain the chemical behavior of the atom. Following Democritus was Dalton who took the idea of the atom and explained it and supported it with scientific methods. Atom= The smallest particle of an element that retains its identity within chemical reactions due to maintaining chemical and physical properties. Dalton?s Atomic Theory: All elements are composed of indivisible particles called atoms (later disproved)

AP Chem Final Review

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Chemistry Final Review By: AP Chemistry Class Nuclear...Some Definitions ? Nucleons-any particle found in the nucleus - ex(protons and neutrons) ? Nuclide-atom defined by # of protons and neutrons in nucleus ? Isotopes-same # of protons, but different # of neutrons ? Attraction stronger in nucleus than repulsion ? Hideki Yukawa Nuclear Types of forces: ? Strong Nuclear Force-interaction that binds nucleons together when very close...short distances=larger nuclei Nuclear Binding energy: ? When protons and neutrons come together, energy released ? More stable=Lower Energy ? Nuclear Binding energy-energy released when nucleons come together ? Mass of atom

AP Chem Study Guide

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Chemistry Final Review By: AP Chemistry Class Nuclear...Some Definitions ? Nucleons-any particle found in the nucleus - ex(protons and neutrons) ? Nuclide-atom defined by # of protons and neutrons in nucleus ? Isotopes-same # of protons, but different # of neutrons ? Attraction stronger in nucleus than repulsion ? Hideki Yukawa Nuclear Types of forces: ? Strong Nuclear Force-interaction that binds nucleons together when very close...short distances=larger nuclei Nuclear Binding energy: ? When protons and neutrons come together, energy released ? More stable=Lower Energy ? Nuclear Binding energy-energy released when nucleons come together ? Mass of atom

AP Chemistry Zumdahl 7E Chapter 21 Notes

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1 AP Chemistry Chapter 21 - The Nucleus: A Chemist?s View 21.1 Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay A. Radioactive Decay 1. Decomposition forming a different nucleus and producing one or more particles a. Total mass number and atomic number must be conserved in any nuclear change nCHeBe 101264294 +?+ B. Zone of Stability 1. Of 2000 known nuclides, only 279 are stable with respect to radioactive decay 2. All nuclides with more than 83 protons (bismuth) are unstable 3. Light nuclides are most stable when the neutron/proton ratio is 1 4. Heavier nuclides are most stable when the neutron/proton ratio is greater than 1 5. Magic numbers a. Special stability exists when the number of protons or neutrons is: 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126 C. Types of Radioactive Decay

The History of the Atom - Notes

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The History of the Atom Chapter 5 Major Discoveries 1806: John Dalton Atomic theory 1896 Henri Becquerel Radioactivity 1897: JJ Thomson Discovered the Electron 1909: Robert Millikan Confirmed existence of Electrons, their mass and their negative charge 1910: Ernst Rutherford Nucleus has the protons and neutrons, rest is mostly empty space 1913: Neils Bohr Planetary model of the atom Dalton?s Atomic Theory Elements are made up of discrete units called atoms Atoms of each element are identical. Atoms of different elements are different. Compounds are formed when atoms combine. Each compound has a specific number and kinds of atom. Chemical reactions are rearrangement of atoms. Atoms are not created or destroyed. Becquerel and Radioactivity Discovered by accident

Periodic Table - Notes

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Notes ? Periodic Table Do you know all your elements? http://www.privatehand.com/flash/elements.html Squares on the Periodic Table Each square contains Element Symbol Element Name Atomic Number = Protons Average Atomic Mass = Molar Mass Some contain the physical state at Room Temperature What is the atomic mass? The mass of one atom is VERY small therefore we use a relative scale called the AMU. One AMU is exactly 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom. Protons + Neutrons = AMU = Atomic Mass Unit What is the average atomic mass? In a sample of many atoms, various isotopes exist. The abundance of each isotope impacts the average mass of the sample. To find the average atomic mass, multiply the mass times the abundance of each isotope and add these together.

Atomic Structure Notes

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Pre-AP Chemistry 1 Chapter ________ Name _____________________________ Period ______ I. Historical Development (3-1) x particle theory of matter first proposed by ________________________ in 400 BC ? named the basic particle the ?_______________?, which means ____________________ in Greek x by 1700?s most scientists accepted definition of an _____________ as a substance that cannot be broken down by ordinary ________________ means x also accepted that _______________ combine to form ________________ x _______________________: the transformation of a substance or substances into 1 or more

Living in the Environment 16th Ed. : Ch.2 Key Terms

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Chapter 2 Key Terms acidity Ions are also important for measuring a substance?s acidity in a water solution, a chemical characteristic that helps determine how a substance dissolved in water will interact with and affect its environment. atom The most basic building block of matter is an atom: the smallest unit of matter into which an element can be divided and still retain its chemical properties. atomic number Each element has a unique atomic number, equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of its atom. atomic theory The idea that all elements are made up of atoms is called the atomic theory and is the most widely accepted scientific theory in chemistry. cells

atomic structure

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Atomic Structure Definitions ? Acceleration ? The stage of mass spectrometry during which the movement of the ions of the sample is speeded up using a series of negatively-charged plates. ? Atomic number ? The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element. Represented by the symbol Z. Also called the proton number. ? Deflection ? The stage of mass spectrometry during which the beam of ions is bent by a particular amount, depending on its mass-to-charge ratio. This is achieved using an electromagnet. ? Detection ? The stage of mass spectrometry during which the ions strike a collector plate, producing a mass spectrum for analysis. ? Diatomic ? A molecule consisting of two atoms. ? Electromagnet ? The part of a mass spectrometer responsible for the

Chemistry MidTerm Review

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CP Chemistry Midterm Review List Substance: element & compound ? water, Aluminum, ethanol, carbon dioxide Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Physical & Chemical Properties & changes: Freezing/melting, boiling/condensing ;State Change (melting point) Burning/ rusting Metric system: Units, prefixes (kilo-milli), and conversions one milliliter equals 1 cm3 325 mg can be expressed in grams Temperature scales & conversion - Celsius temperature is equivalent to 298K Accuracy vs. precision Scientific Notation & Significant figures 149,000,000 Percent error A molar mass of a compound is 75 g/mol. A student reported an experimental value of 78 g/mol. The percent error is Density

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