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Baryons

Atomic Structure

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Atomic Structure The discovery of atoms began with Democritus, a Greek philosopher, who was the first person to suggest that atoms exist. However Democritus made the false claim that atoms were indestructible which was proven wrong with the development of the atomic bomb (nuclear power), additionally he did not support his idea with scientific evidence or explain the chemical behavior of the atom. Following Democritus was Dalton who took the idea of the atom and explained it and supported it with scientific methods. Atom= The smallest particle of an element that retains its identity within chemical reactions due to maintaining chemical and physical properties. Dalton?s Atomic Theory: All elements are composed of indivisible particles called atoms (later disproved)

AP Chem Final Review

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Chemistry Final Review By: AP Chemistry Class Nuclear...Some Definitions ? Nucleons-any particle found in the nucleus - ex(protons and neutrons) ? Nuclide-atom defined by # of protons and neutrons in nucleus ? Isotopes-same # of protons, but different # of neutrons ? Attraction stronger in nucleus than repulsion ? Hideki Yukawa Nuclear Types of forces: ? Strong Nuclear Force-interaction that binds nucleons together when very close...short distances=larger nuclei Nuclear Binding energy: ? When protons and neutrons come together, energy released ? More stable=Lower Energy ? Nuclear Binding energy-energy released when nucleons come together ? Mass of atom

AP Chem Study Guide

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Chemistry Final Review By: AP Chemistry Class Nuclear...Some Definitions ? Nucleons-any particle found in the nucleus - ex(protons and neutrons) ? Nuclide-atom defined by # of protons and neutrons in nucleus ? Isotopes-same # of protons, but different # of neutrons ? Attraction stronger in nucleus than repulsion ? Hideki Yukawa Nuclear Types of forces: ? Strong Nuclear Force-interaction that binds nucleons together when very close...short distances=larger nuclei Nuclear Binding energy: ? When protons and neutrons come together, energy released ? More stable=Lower Energy ? Nuclear Binding energy-energy released when nucleons come together ? Mass of atom

The History of the Atom - Notes

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The History of the Atom Chapter 5 Major Discoveries 1806: John Dalton Atomic theory 1896 Henri Becquerel Radioactivity 1897: JJ Thomson Discovered the Electron 1909: Robert Millikan Confirmed existence of Electrons, their mass and their negative charge 1910: Ernst Rutherford Nucleus has the protons and neutrons, rest is mostly empty space 1913: Neils Bohr Planetary model of the atom Dalton?s Atomic Theory Elements are made up of discrete units called atoms Atoms of each element are identical. Atoms of different elements are different. Compounds are formed when atoms combine. Each compound has a specific number and kinds of atom. Chemical reactions are rearrangement of atoms. Atoms are not created or destroyed. Becquerel and Radioactivity Discovered by accident

Living in the Environment 16th Ed. : Ch.2 Key Terms

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Chapter 2 Key Terms acidity Ions are also important for measuring a substance?s acidity in a water solution, a chemical characteristic that helps determine how a substance dissolved in water will interact with and affect its environment. atom The most basic building block of matter is an atom: the smallest unit of matter into which an element can be divided and still retain its chemical properties. atomic number Each element has a unique atomic number, equal to the number of protons in the nucleus of its atom. atomic theory The idea that all elements are made up of atoms is called the atomic theory and is the most widely accepted scientific theory in chemistry. cells

Chemistry MidTerm Review

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CP Chemistry Midterm Review List Substance: element & compound ? water, Aluminum, ethanol, carbon dioxide Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Physical & Chemical Properties & changes: Freezing/melting, boiling/condensing ;State Change (melting point) Burning/ rusting Metric system: Units, prefixes (kilo-milli), and conversions one milliliter equals 1 cm3 325 mg can be expressed in grams Temperature scales & conversion - Celsius temperature is equivalent to 298K Accuracy vs. precision Scientific Notation & Significant figures 149,000,000 Percent error A molar mass of a compound is 75 g/mol. A student reported an experimental value of 78 g/mol. The percent error is Density

Chapter 6- Chemistry in Biology

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Chapter 6-Chemistry in Biology COMPOSITION OF MATTER -Matter-everything in universe is composed of matter. -Matter is anything that occupies space or has mass -Mass-quantity of matter in an object -Weight-pull of gravity on us ELEMENTS -Pure substances that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler kinds of matter -More than 100 elements (92 naturally occuring) -90% of the mass of an organism is composed of 4 elements (oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen) -Each element has a unique chemical symbol -Consists of 1-2 letters -First letter is always captialized ATOMS -The simplest particle of an elemetnt that remains all the properties of that element. -Properties of atoms determine the structure and properties of the matter they compose.

Something?

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Question 1?(Worth 1 points) [02.01]Which of the following is essential for a theory to become widely accepted within the scientific community? ?A theory must include a valid scientific model. ?A theory must be supported by many different experiments. ?A theory is an educated guess based on multiple observations. ?A theory must change over time regardless of the scientific data. Points earned on this question: 1 Question 2?(Worth 1 points) [02.01]Which of the following is the?best?definition of a scientific model? ?any visual representation of scientific experimental findings ?a 3-d object used to demonstrate key scientific theories and data ?a visual, verbal, or mathematical explanation of experimental data ?an explanation of any scientific idea, theory, or experimental results

Chemistry Chapter 4,25

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Lecture 2 (Chapter 4 & 25) Atomic Structure Democritus (400 BC) ? Postulated there must be some basic unit of matter that could not be divided any further. ? Basic unit ? atomos (Greek = indivisible) Dalton Dalton?s Atomic Theory ? All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms ? All atoms of a given element are identical having the ame size, mass and chemical properties. Atoms of a specific element are different from those of any other element ? Different atoms combined in simple whole number ratios to form compounds ? Ina chemical reaction, atoms are separated, combined, or rearranged ? Atoms cannot be created, divided into smaller particles or destroyed. Scientist and Experiments Cathode Ray Tube Experiments ? Plum pudding model ?

Chapter 2 Outline

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SCIENCE, MATTER, ENERGY, AND SYSTEMS p.28-49 Core Case Study ? Carrying Out a Controlled Scientific Experiment o controlled experiment- a way in which scientists learn about how nature works is to conduct a controlled experiment o variables- factors that can change within a system or situation being studied o single-variable analysis- an experiment designed to isolate and study the effects of one variable at a time o experimental group- a chosen variable is changed in a known way o control group- the chosen variable is not changed 2-1 What Is Science p.29-35 ? Science Is a Search for Order in Nature o science- an endeavor to discover how nature works and to use that knowledge to make predictions

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