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Neutron

Atomic Structure

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Atomic Structure The discovery of atoms began with Democritus, a Greek philosopher, who was the first person to suggest that atoms exist. However Democritus made the false claim that atoms were indestructible which was proven wrong with the development of the atomic bomb (nuclear power), additionally he did not support his idea with scientific evidence or explain the chemical behavior of the atom. Following Democritus was Dalton who took the idea of the atom and explained it and supported it with scientific methods. Atom= The smallest particle of an element that retains its identity within chemical reactions due to maintaining chemical and physical properties. Dalton?s Atomic Theory: All elements are composed of indivisible particles called atoms (later disproved)

AP Chem Final Review

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Chemistry Final Review By: AP Chemistry Class Nuclear...Some Definitions ? Nucleons-any particle found in the nucleus - ex(protons and neutrons) ? Nuclide-atom defined by # of protons and neutrons in nucleus ? Isotopes-same # of protons, but different # of neutrons ? Attraction stronger in nucleus than repulsion ? Hideki Yukawa Nuclear Types of forces: ? Strong Nuclear Force-interaction that binds nucleons together when very close...short distances=larger nuclei Nuclear Binding energy: ? When protons and neutrons come together, energy released ? More stable=Lower Energy ? Nuclear Binding energy-energy released when nucleons come together ? Mass of atom

AP Chem Study Guide

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Chemistry Final Review By: AP Chemistry Class Nuclear...Some Definitions ? Nucleons-any particle found in the nucleus - ex(protons and neutrons) ? Nuclide-atom defined by # of protons and neutrons in nucleus ? Isotopes-same # of protons, but different # of neutrons ? Attraction stronger in nucleus than repulsion ? Hideki Yukawa Nuclear Types of forces: ? Strong Nuclear Force-interaction that binds nucleons together when very close...short distances=larger nuclei Nuclear Binding energy: ? When protons and neutrons come together, energy released ? More stable=Lower Energy ? Nuclear Binding energy-energy released when nucleons come together ? Mass of atom

AP Chemistry Zumdahl 7E Chapter 21 Notes

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1 AP Chemistry Chapter 21 - The Nucleus: A Chemist?s View 21.1 Nuclear Stability and Radioactive Decay A. Radioactive Decay 1. Decomposition forming a different nucleus and producing one or more particles a. Total mass number and atomic number must be conserved in any nuclear change nCHeBe 101264294 +?+ B. Zone of Stability 1. Of 2000 known nuclides, only 279 are stable with respect to radioactive decay 2. All nuclides with more than 83 protons (bismuth) are unstable 3. Light nuclides are most stable when the neutron/proton ratio is 1 4. Heavier nuclides are most stable when the neutron/proton ratio is greater than 1 5. Magic numbers a. Special stability exists when the number of protons or neutrons is: 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126 C. Types of Radioactive Decay

The History of the Atom - Notes

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The History of the Atom Chapter 5 Major Discoveries 1806: John Dalton Atomic theory 1896 Henri Becquerel Radioactivity 1897: JJ Thomson Discovered the Electron 1909: Robert Millikan Confirmed existence of Electrons, their mass and their negative charge 1910: Ernst Rutherford Nucleus has the protons and neutrons, rest is mostly empty space 1913: Neils Bohr Planetary model of the atom Dalton?s Atomic Theory Elements are made up of discrete units called atoms Atoms of each element are identical. Atoms of different elements are different. Compounds are formed when atoms combine. Each compound has a specific number and kinds of atom. Chemical reactions are rearrangement of atoms. Atoms are not created or destroyed. Becquerel and Radioactivity Discovered by accident

quiz 1

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Evolution is biology?s core theme that ties together all the other themes. Which of the following is not explained by the theory of evolution? a. The unity and diversity of life. b. How organisms become adapted to their environment through the differential reproductive success of varying individuals. c. Why distantly related organisms sometime resemble each other. d. How the first living cells were formed. e. How humans have descended from common ancestors shared with other primate species. Which of the following is necessary for cell survival? a. Reading of the DNA sequence to produce proteins. b. Response to environmental conditions. c. Obtain and process energy. d. Both A and C are true. e. All of the above are true.

Chemistry MidTerm Review

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CP Chemistry Midterm Review List Substance: element & compound ? water, Aluminum, ethanol, carbon dioxide Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Physical & Chemical Properties & changes: Freezing/melting, boiling/condensing ;State Change (melting point) Burning/ rusting Metric system: Units, prefixes (kilo-milli), and conversions one milliliter equals 1 cm3 325 mg can be expressed in grams Temperature scales & conversion - Celsius temperature is equivalent to 298K Accuracy vs. precision Scientific Notation & Significant figures 149,000,000 Percent error A molar mass of a compound is 75 g/mol. A student reported an experimental value of 78 g/mol. The percent error is Density

Chapter 2 Outline

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SCIENCE, MATTER, ENERGY, AND SYSTEMS p.28-49 Core Case Study ? Carrying Out a Controlled Scientific Experiment o controlled experiment- a way in which scientists learn about how nature works is to conduct a controlled experiment o variables- factors that can change within a system or situation being studied o single-variable analysis- an experiment designed to isolate and study the effects of one variable at a time o experimental group- a chosen variable is changed in a known way o control group- the chosen variable is not changed 2-1 What Is Science p.29-35 ? Science Is a Search for Order in Nature o science- an endeavor to discover how nature works and to use that knowledge to make predictions
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