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united states

Chapter 9

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Protestant Episcopal Church The disestablished Anglican Church, reformed 1786 Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom A statute allowing for separation, to some degree, of church and state, passed by Jefferson and Baptists. republican motherhood A sentiment that found housewives responsible for cultivating good republican values in their children Massachusetts Constitution Called a special convention to draft constitution, ratified by public Empress of China A pioneering trade ship that carried ginseng to China. Articles of Confederation (1781) The product of the Congressional committee writing a constitution fundamental law superior to the transient whims of ordinary legislation loose confederation

Chapter 10

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Washington?s cabinet Set precedent, the heads of department assembled to advise the presdient Bill of Rights A list of guarantees for American freedoms, drafted by James Madison and added to the constitution as the first ten Amendments Judiciary Act (1789) Established and organized effective courts, including SCOTUS Alexander Hamilton Treasury Secretary, who aimed to assume all debts and establish BUS ?funding at par? the federal government would pay off debts at face value ?assumption? Having Congress assume state debts, bound states to federal government federal district Placing the federal district on the Potomac allowed Virginia to ?assume? Whiskey Rebellion A rebellion in PA against taxes on whiskey. Federal response was strong

Chapter 11

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Chapter 11: The Triumphs and Travails of Jeffersonian Democracy ?John Adams?s Jackasses? The new navy rallied for America?s conflict against France, which never happened Revolution of 1800 The peaceful transfer of power from the Federalists to the Democratic-Republicans Naturalization Law (1802) a law restoring the citizenship requirement of residency to the original 5 years Albert Gallatin Secretary of the Treasury, who reduced the national debt and balanced the budget Judiciary Act (1801) Created 16 federal judgeships and other judicial offices John Marshall The strongly Federalist Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and cousin of Jefferson Marbury v. Madison A case establishing the SCOTUS?s power of judicial review (capacity to interpret Constitution)

American revolution notes

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Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war ? you don?t have to win a battle, just wear the British down] The Americans The British 1777, separate and control New England. Break the colonies in half by getting between the North and South. General Horatio Gates surrounds the British with the help of Benedict Arnold British defeat stopped them from cutting off New England from the rest of the country and ending the war. British lacked knowledge of geography and failed at communications. Oct. 1777, British General, John Burgoyne was surrounded by US General Horatio Gates and forced to surrender 6,000 British troops. Led to a military alliance with France providing soldiers, naval fleet and $$$$$. (Franco-American alliance, 1778) Surrender/saratoga Valley Forge

chapter 19

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Chapter 19: Drifting Toward Disunion Uncle Tom?s Cabin?1852 Harriet Beecher Stowe Inspired by the 2nd Great Awakening Wanted to show the North the horrors of slavery Especially the breaking up of families South claimed that the novel was unfair Not an accurate portrayal of slavery Stowe had never seen slavery in the Deep South Novel was very successful Millions of copies sold in US and abroad Huge political impact Northerners decided not to enforce the Fugitive Slave Law Boys who read the book in the North would be Union soldiers Popularity with the public in Europe kept European leaders from helping the South in the Civil War Another influential book The Impending Crisis of the South?1857?Hinton R. Helper

chapter 18

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Chapter 18: Renewing the Sectional Struggle The Popular Sovereignty Panacea Election of 1848 Polk does not want to run again for the democrats Democrats pick General Lewis Cass (War of 1812) Believed in popular sovereignty Popular Sovereignty? Doctrine that stated that the sovereign people of a territory should determine the status of slavery Whigs nominate General Zachary Taylor No official stance on the extension of slavery, but owned slaves Free Soil party Organized by antislavery men?agree with Wilmot Proviso Disliked slavery because it hurt whites chances to own land Wanted free soil in the West so whites could own property Nominated Van Buren Taylor won Free-soilers took votes from Democrats in NY CA Gold Rush, Sectional Balance and the Underground Railroad

chapter 17

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Chapter 17: Manifest Destiny and Its Legacy The Accession of ?Tyler Too? Webster and Clay expect to run the country after Harrison?s election Harrison is just a figurehead to get Whigs in office Unfortunately for Webster and Clay? Harrison dies after just 4 weeks in office John Tyler becomes president Many Whigs do not like Tyler Left the Democrats for the Whigs b/c he didn?t like Jackson Embraced states? rights issues Not a big supporter of the Bank, Tariffs, or Internal Improvements Clay begins to implement Whig plans Whig Congress passes a law ending the independent treasury Tyler signs it Next, Clay pushes a bill through Congress to establish a ?Fiscal Bank? This would establish a new Bank of US Tyler vetoes the bill

chapter 16

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Chapter 16: The South and the Slavery Controversy ?Cotton is King!? The South produced more than ? of the world?s supply of cotton Cotton accounted for about ? of all exports after 1840 Britain was the leading industrial power and? Its single most important manufacture was cotton cloth 1/5 of British population worked in cotton manufacturing About 75% of its cotton came from the South Southern leaders believed the British would protect them in a war with the North because of their dependence on the South for cotton? Cotton King The Planter Aristocracy The South could be described as an oligarchy What is an oligarchy? Government run by a few (usually wealthy have the power) Widened the gap between the rich and the poor Wealthy children went to private schools, therefore

chapter 11

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Chapter 11: Triumphs and Travails of the Jeffersonian Republic Federalist and Republican Mudslingers Problems for Adams/Federalists Alien and Sedition Acts Hamilton and other Federalists that wanted to fight France not happy Americans in general angry about preparations for war with France Increased national debt New taxes?stamp tax Problems for Jefferson ?Whispering campaign? Robbed a widow Several children with slave women Religious liberal Orthodox clergy called him atheist Some people feared he would outlaw religion Jeffersonian ?Revolution of 1800? Jefferson defeats Adams, but? Aaron Burr has the same number of electoral votes Jefferson finally elected by the House when Hamilton convinced his supporters that Jefferson was better than Burr

chapter 10 outline

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Chapter 10: Launching the New Ship of State Growing Pains 1790?4 million people Pop. doubling every 25 years Vermont becomes 14th state in 1791 KY?1792, TN?1796, OH?1803 Washington for President GW unanimously chosen by the electoral college in 1789 Washington creates the 1st cabinet Constitution allows the president to appoint chiefs of departments as long as they are approved by the Senate GW appointed 4 heads of departments Secretary of State?Thomas Jefferson Secretary of the Treasury?Alexander Hamilton Secretary of War?Henry Knox Atty General?Edmund Randolph GW began the practice of calling cabinet meetings to seek advice The Bill of Rights Antifederalists want a bill of rights?Federalists do not AF Revolution was fought to escape tyranny of a central gov?t

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